Questions tagged [immune-system]

The group of cellular and molecular processes that the body uses to fight bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. Autoimmune and inflammatory disease are caused by malfunctioning of this system and should also be tagged with the disease name.

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Why is booster shot needed when mRNA vaccines can induce memory cells?

My understanding about mRNA Covid-19 vaccines and memory cell is that they do induce memory T cell response similar to natural infection, and thus provide long term protection via the memory cell ...
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(How) does taking all available vaccines contribute to cross- and trained immunity?

Many countries have national vaccination campaigns that consists of vaccines against several different diseases. I expect that the choice of vaccines that are included in such programs is mainly ...
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Do immune system challenges affect age related immune response decline?

Load bearing exercise is known to help maintain strong bones as we age. Physical exercise prevents muscle atrophy and promotes overall body and organ health. It is also known that cognitive ...
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Is it considered eosinophilia if the total eosinophil count is normal but the eosinophil percentage is high?

If the total eosinophil count is normal but the eosinophil percentage is high, is it considered eosinophilia, or is it merely grounds for a rerun of the test? In a paper by Kovalski and Weller (2016), ...
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Relationship between Th1 and Th2 and their cross-regulation (+ understanding what cross-regulation means)

Apologies, biology is not my area of expertise but I do have an interest in it. I "know" that Th1 and Th2 cross-regulate but I'm not sure what that means... Could it mean that if one ...
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Is there any concern that we may be harming ourselves in the long run with the safety measures during COVID?

With all the safety measures in place, such as more frequent hand washing, use of hand sanitiser, masks, safe distancing etc, is there any concern that by exposing ourselves to fewer viruses and ...
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Why do we need to get rid of fever, whilst most of medical textbooks say it is a defense reaction of immune system [closed]

Why is paracetamol prescribed in cases of every fever when fever actually helps the body and is in fact induced by the immune system? Shouldn't it be better to let the immune system do its job?
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Covid-19 incubation period for vaccinated people

1The incubation period for covid-19 can be even something like 14 days. I guess this can be caused by having no specific immunity to this disease, so it takes some time for the immune system to react. ...
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Do covid vaccines increase the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement?

A QAnon video which takes Nobel Prize winner Luc Montagnier's suspect claims about covid vaccination and multiplies them beyond recognition states that mass vaccination will lead to mass ADE, and that ...
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Why do some vaccines cause flu-like symptoms? Why does this seem to be more severe in mRNA vaccines?

Flu like symptoms are noted as possible reactions on nearly every vaccine I've had since adolescence, but I've never actually seen these symptoms in myself or anyone, until now? I don't doubt that ...
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What is the historical or scientific basis for concern about COVID vaccines and pregnant women and their babies?

There's a lot of talk about whether COVID vaccines are safe for pregnant women and their fetuses. Current guidelines, while mentioning that there's little data, suggest that they are safe. However, I'...
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When speaking of vaccine efficacy (for COVID-19, or other), is immune response or efficacy really being measured? [duplicate]

I've been performing many web searches using combinations of the words "vaccine", "vaccination", "COVID-19", "coronavirus", "efficacy", and "...
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Covid-19 and Original Antigenic Sin

My understanding of original antigenic sin, which I admit is minimal, is that with some pathogens, your immune system gets too focused on one variant and thus is wholly unprepared to deal with a ...
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Is there any data on herbal supplements interfering with the efficacy of vaccination?

Here's an excerpt from a paper published in "Journal of Inflammation Research" by Dove Press for a popular and controversial herbal supplement from India: Coronil effectively inhibited the ...
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Why is it so difficult to develop vaccine for HIV?

I recently learnt that vaccine basically involves making the body ready by informing it the structure of spike protiens the virus has before hand. Why are we not able to do this for HIV. What's so ...
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Are coronavirus-like spikes only seen in viruses?

Are there any natural proteins or cells (or anything) made by the human body with spikes like those of Covid-19? I know that there have been no serious side effects reported from the Covid-19 vaccine, ...
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Are many viruses actually good for us?… maybe even essential to our survival?

We know that a very large proportion of bacteria are essential to our good health. Every other day we see press release about the microbiome, and its multitude of health implications. Is there ...
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How infectious is HSV-1 & 2 respectively, when no noticeable symptoms are showing?

I wanna know what the latest scientific researches conclude — as I'm sure there must have been some but I couldn't find any on google beyond those "The More You Know" type short articles ...
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What protection does T-cell immunity confer for Covid?

This preprint, which was just released today, says that while some of the Covid-19 variants evade antibody immunity, they do not evade T-cell immunity. It says that this is true both of T-cell ...
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Effects of anti-Rh(D) antibodies on the fetus

Rh disease is caused by the irruption in the fetal circulation of anti-Rh(D) antibodies. This only happens when there has been a prior exposure of the mother to Rh+ RBC. To prevent Rh sensitization ...
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How durable is a human immunity to an adenovirus (at least specific serotypes)?

There are few SARS-Cov-2 vaccines that use adenovirus vectors as vehicles (human's Ad5, Ad26, chimps' ChAdOx1, probably something else). A side effect of such a vaccine is that an inoculated organism ...
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How can vaccines be effective against respiratory viruses when it is the innate immune system that is the primary response to such pathogens?

I don't understand how vaccines can be thought to be effective against respiratory viruses. We have influenza "vaccines" and now the new mRNA vaccine against COVID-19. However, my ...
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Will the COVID-19 vaccine grant immunity to other coronaviruses?

As I understand it, the mRNA vaccine teaches the immune system to recognize and attack the spike protein on the surface of the novel coronavirus. Don't all coronaviruses share this same spike protein? ...
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How can a vaccine prevent an individual from getting a disease but not from transmitting it?

In the news about the COVID-19 vaccines which are about to begin distribution, I've seen statements to the effect that "it’s not clear if the shot keeps the disease from being transmitted" (...
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Covid vaccine side effects [closed]

The Pfizer Covid vaccine caused allergic reactions. For patients that are deemed to be at an increased risk of adverse side effects following a risk assessment (e.g. because of diabetes, heart disease)...
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Does Coriander Seed increase or decrease tnf alpha and il-6?

I came across two different papers claiming the opposite thing. Although there was a dose dependent increase in serum TNF-α levels in the CSHE treated groups as compared to control, the synovial ...
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How often does the adaptive immune system “learn” a new pathogen?

I was arguing with an anti-vaxxer (clearly a favorite pastime) when he made the argument that there are certain risks, like triggering of autoimmune disease, inherent to the process of the adaptive ...
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Given that reinfection is possible with the flu viruses, why didn't the 1918 flu pandemic last forever?

We know that reinfection is possible with the seasonal flu and one could surmise that it was also possible with the 1918 flu strain. But if reinfection is possible and immunity to the flu doesn't last ...
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What makes “chickenpox parties” recommended?

Prior to the availability of the chickenpox vaccine in the mid-90s, I recall the prevailing medical recommendation was to expose children to the virus at "chickenpox parties" with other kids ...
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How can we stop our immune system from producing a particular antibody? [closed]

I have always been fascinated with our immune system and, although it is not my specialization, I have been reading about it lately. Auto immune diseases are particularly interesting because it seems ...
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Why COVID-19 “immunogenicity may be 70%”?

The USA CDC director Dr. Robert Redfield was recently quoted in the media as saying: "I might even go so far as to say that this face mask is more guaranteed to protect me against Covid than ...
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Can IVIG treatment increase risk of infections?

Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG) are often used to treat patients with impaired antibody production or autoimmune conditions[1]. However, according to this paper[2], it can also inhibit antibody ...
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Studies On The Affect Of Immunotherapy On Larynx Surgeries

I've been searching online for a study regarding the affect of immunotherapy on the necessity for an affected individual diagnosed with laryngeal cancer to require larynx surgery, to no avail. Could ...
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Which HPV types are detectable by the immune system to remove it from body?

Some resources (like WHO) says that HPV can be cleared by the immune system as the following. WHO There are many types of HPV, and many do not cause problems. HPV infections usually clear up without ...
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Do antihistamines slow down the healing process of a bite/wound?

Taking antihistamines is common for relieving the itch sensation from a mosquito bite. This itching sensation is one of the side effects of histamine, which is produced as part of the immunological ...
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How soon after a small skin cut will the skin restore its bacteria/virus defense?

I am asking in the context of preventing STD transmission via small cuts in the hand as in the image : https://thumbs.dreamstime.com/b/cut-finger-wound-closeup-human-hand-hurt-bleeding-healthcare-...
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Is inoculation against covid-19 an option?

Covid-19 can cause serious illness or death, and it can take survivors a very long time to recover, and even then it is unsure if recovery will be complete. The policies put in place to curb the ...
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Can this method of immunization for horses serve as a COVID-19 vaccine for humans?

A group of scientist developed Equine polyclonal antibodies (EpAbs) obtained after immunization of horses with the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 viral Spike glycoprotein. https://ri....
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How to measure how long does a vaccine last?

Recently I read someone arguing against pharmaceuticals saying COVID 19 vaccine immunity would last around a year. His argument was that how do they know that it's good for a year if a year has not ...
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How long does it take for the COVID-19 antibody to disappear?

I saw a news article says; 90 days after the infection with ncov19, several patients had no detectable antibodies in their bloodstream. This seems to be one of their evidence that immunity against ...
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Is it possible to remove HPV from the body by strengthening the immune system?

I saw some content which says HPV can be removed from the body by strengthening the immune system: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt05-hpv.html Most HPV infections are transient and ...
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Can SARS-CoV-2 possibly overcome herd immunity without mutation in densely populated countries and places? [closed]

Can the coronavirus that causes covid-19 possibly overcome herd immunity without mutation using immune individuals as hubs till it reaches vulnerable individuals in very densely populated countries ...
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The relationship between the rate of decrease of antibody production and long term immunity

I am seeing a large number of COVID-19 articles which point to low levels of antibody production 2-3 months after infection. They all point to this being an indicator that infection may not provide ...
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Bad but better-than-nothing vaccine

The first vaccines for viral diseases, such as smallpox, were a variety of live, attenuated or dead virus particles. They did not use adjuvants and they were not safe - but, the chance of ...
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What makes a person asymptomatic? How does it work?

As someone who's simply asking out of curiosity, I've tried looking into the topic myself, but often times I run into answers with little or no detail on the subject. Sometimes the question is more ...
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What are the effects of repeated sub-infective doses of coronavirus?

There are experimental records and clinical observations showing that exposure to sub-infective doses of some pathogens can result in enhanced immunity to infection when exposed to an infective dose ...
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What is the long-term COVID-19 outlook?

Finding a cure for the common cold has long been an unattainable holy grail of medicine. The common cold is caused by over 200 different strains of viruses (Common cold - Wikipedia). The viruses ...
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How come Anti-D administered to Rh-negative mothers doesn't cause sensitization to the Rh antigen

As I understand it, the anti-D will coat the fetal Rh+ RBCs, and since these have been marked by IgG, they will get phagocytosed among other things that will result in their destruction. If the RBCs ...
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What is the Fatality Rate of the Common Cold?

During COVID-19, we've heard many comparisons between SARS-CoV-2 and the Flu, especially in terms of the case fatality rate (CFR). Currently, the Flu is thought to be around 0.1%, and according to the ...
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False Positive PCR - COVID-19 and possible reinfection when antibodies value is +7.0

A friend of mine was detected COVID-19 positive through PCR one month back. He was asymptotic as per doctors and had no symptoms. He quarantined himself and increased his intake of water. After 1 ...