Questions tagged [immune-system]

The group of cellular and molecular processes that the body uses to fight bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. Autoimmune and inflammatory disease are caused by malfunctioning of this system and should also be tagged with the disease name.

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What makes a person asymptomatic? How does it work?

As someone who's simply asking out of curiosity, I've tried looking into the topic myself, but often times I run into answers with little or no detail on the subject. Sometimes the question is more ...
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What are the effects of repeated sub-infective doses of coronavirus?

There are experimental records and clinical observations showing that exposure to sub-infective doses of some pathogens can result in enhanced immunity to infection when exposed to an infective dose ...
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What is the long-term COVID-19 outlook?

Finding a cure for the common cold has long been an unattainable holy grail of medicine. The common cold is caused by over 200 different strains of viruses (Common cold - Wikipedia). The viruses ...
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How come Anti-D administered to Rh-negative mothers doesn't cause sensitization to the Rh antigen

As I understand it, the anti-D will coat the fetal Rh+ RBCs, and since these have been marked by IgG, they will get phagocytosed among other things that will result in their destruction. If the RBCs ...
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What is the Fatality Rate of the Common Cold?

During COVID-19, we've heard many comparisons between SARS-CoV-2 and the Flu, especially in terms of the case fatality rate (CFR). Currently, the Flu is thought to be around 0.1%, and according to the ...
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False Positive PCR - COVID-19 and possible reinfection when antibodies value is +7.0

A friend of mine was detected COVID-19 positive through PCR one month back. He was asymptotic as per doctors and had no symptoms. He quarantined himself and increased his intake of water. After 1 ...
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Are there diseases for which infection does not grant lasting immunity but a vaccine does?

There has been a lot of discussion about whether people who have COVID-19 and recover will have long-lasting immunity. At the same time, work is underway to create a vaccine for this disease. But if ...
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What's the margin of error for the estimate on the percentage of people infected with latent tuberculosis?

According to a 2011 (news) article in Science More than a third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most people's immune system can keep the ...
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MHC haplotypes and COVID-19 [closed]

Have there been any studies done looking at samples of MHC haplotypes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2? It would be interesting to see if certain HLA polymorphisms are associated with more ...
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Has World Health Organization provided nutrition/diet/exercise guidelines to strengthen the human immune system for better responding to COVID-19?

Medical sciences is not my subject but my personal feeling is that: A strengthen immune system can better respond to viruses than a weak immune system. A balanced diet in combination with exercise ...
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Does obesity predispose to less effective vaccine response in general?

From a (2019) review on host susceptibility to influenza A virus (IAV): Obesity was identified as a risk factor for IAV infection over a decade ago and confirmed during the swine flu pandemic [30, 31]...
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What does it mean to say a population has “low levels of general immunity”?

The UN Humanitarian Coordinator in Yemen, Lisa Grande, is quoted in several places (e.g. this CBS news article as saying (emphasis mine): [SARS-CoV-2] is now in Yemen and may quickly spread. […] ...
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How does reducing the bacterial load enable your immune system to maintain a low enough level of remaining bacteria to avoid clinical symptoms?

Doesn't D.Tan's last para. Personal thoughts: Antibiotics most likely never completely eradicate a bacterial population, but by bringing down the bacterial load, you enable your immune system to ...
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What is the minimal infectious dose (MID) of SARS-CoV-2?

Assuming the immune system is healthy, How much SARS-CoV-2 virus (cause of COVID-19) is required to make a person sick? This might also depend on time, if it was a high infectious dose but just some ...
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Are there any other reasons than mutation that could cause a virus to be able to infect the same person twice?

If you are infected by a virus, and subsequently survive it and get completely rid of the infection, are there any other possible reasons for the same virus to be able to infect you again any time in ...
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What would count as definitive proof that humans can develop COVID-19 immunity?

There are currently numerous debates over whether or not people who have recovered from COVID-19 develop immunity to the disease. By the standards of the the scientific community, what kind of proof ...
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Does the blood removed from the body still have immunity?

I know that blood contains white blood cells (which attack pathogens). Suppose we take half a liter of blood out of the body and implant the virus into it. Can the white blood cells in that half a ...
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How can Stockholm be close to herd immunity without having overwhelmed the healthcare system?

According to several sources, models estimate 20% of people in Stockholm are already immune to COVID-19 (2014-04-22). However, German virologists estimate (2020-04-19) that to reach herd immunity in ...
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Do coronavirus antibodies give you any immunity?

According to Coronavirus antibodies may not make you immune, WHO warns There is no evidence to suggest that recovered coronavirus patients and former asymptomatic carriers who have coronavirus ...
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Why is Antibody-Drug Conjugate regarded as Immunotherapy?

Many immunotherapy papers introduce Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs) as an emerging modality of immunotherapy, and the following is one example: Marin-Acevedo, Julian A et al. “Cancer immunotherapy ...
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Why is the immune response to RSV so short lived (and what else makes a vaccine for RSV difficult)?

From a Bio SE answer that doesn't delve into details on this (because it was a broad question on all "colds") one can't help but notice that RSV has the shortest antibody persistence listed in that ...
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Is it possible for humans to be resistant to certain viral infections without having specific antibodies in their blood?

Popular understanding of how viruses work split immunity into four categories: Virus doesn't affect humans at all No immunity - will get worst possible infection, seems to be the case with COVID-19 ...
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If COVID-19 binds to GRP78 could a GRP78 dose inactivate the virus?

This research found that the COVID-19 spike protein binds to the cell surface receptor GRP78. If we could inject a large amount of GRP78 into patients could it saturate the virus particles, and ...
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Can you recover from COVID-19, and then be reinfected so as to be a danger to other people?

Assuming I've contracted COVID-19 this January and made a full recovery and the antibodies have already left my body again. Now, I come into contact with someone who is sick and I inhale some COVID-19 ...
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Is there a virus from which humans can recover, but which doesn't grant long lasting immunity?

Prior to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic I was under the impression that viruses fall into two categories: Diseases from which you recover and afterwards become fully immune. When reinfected with a mutated ...
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How does lifetime immunity work?

Why do we get a lifetime immunity against particular diseases like smallpox ? Why don't we get immunity against all diseases we have already been through ?
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Does exposure to less than the Minimum Infective Dose act as a vaccine in some cases?

I know that there's no immune response/adaptation of some (relatively) new viruses like HIV for which it's estimated that it would take at least 32,000 years for humans to develop a non-pathogenic ...
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COVID-19 and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis [closed]

I am a 24 year old male. Some years ago I remember being told by my GP that I may have Hashimoto's. He suggested annual blood tests. For several years, it all came back normal, no medication required. ...
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What is the point of herd immunity?

A few weeks ago the UK has been debating about herd immunity. I understand that when most people are immune to a disease, then the disease is harder to spread. However, how are they going to ...
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What's the best time of year to purposely contract COVID? [closed]

Before the vaccine for German measles was available, girls were encouraged to expose themselves to a friend or acquaintance who had the disease, to acquire immunity, so that they would not end up ...
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Is the length of an epidemic linked to the strictness of the confinement?

From my understanding the measures to confine the population are designed not to protect it from getting infected but to prevent the hospitals to be overflown by too many simultaneous cases. In other ...
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If I get COVID-19, can I get cured by myself?

Suppose I get infected by COVID-19. I am a healthy person but with weight issues, according to the standard weight tables. Can my immune system cure me by itself? That is, without the need of ...
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Why do we need booster shots, for some viruses but not the others?

When being vaccinated we are given viruses that have been killed or made 'not working' in some other way. Then we get B and T cells that can 'kill' it. For example, for polio, memory B and T cells ...
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Is this explanation of coronavirus accurate?

I have seen the following post popping up on Facebook recently: 🧐🧐🧐 Feeling confused as to why Coronavirus is a bigger deal than Seasonal flu? Here it is in a nutshell. I hope this ...
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How would the tuberculosis vaccine (BCG) decrease severity of COVID-19?

Two academic hospitals in The Netherlands (Nijmegen and Utrecht) just got approval to experiment with using a tuberculosis vaccine (BCG) to try to better protect hospital workers against coronavirus. ...
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Could an infinitesimal amount of Covid-19 be used to trigger immune response?

Could one be injected with an infinitesimal amount of Covid-19 viral particles, in a way that it would trigger an immune response long enough before the virus overran the body? Could it be injected ...
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Is a patient who has an autoimmune disease immunocompromised?

If a patient has an autoimmune disease - Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, for example - and is not on immunosuppressants, are they at a higher, lower or equal risk of ending up with COVID-19 (or any other ...
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How can immunity be developed without a vaccine? (re Merkel's speech)

Recently, German Chancellor Angela Merkel gave a speech about the importance of slowing down Covid-19. Among her remarks were The most important thing, the chancellor said, is to slow down the ...
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How long should I stay isolated after I recover from COVID-19?

If a person gets COVID-19 and (hopefully) recovers at home without being hospitalized, how long should that person stay isolated before they can return to social interaction?
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Does immunity to some coronavirus confer any immunity to other strains?

Genetic sequencing of COVID-19 in China in December 2019 revealed two strains of the virus, identified as S and L, with S being the ancestral version while L was more prevalent (70:30 ratio) and more ...
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Is there a spread of immunity agains viruses due to failed infections?

As an interested layperson (having small kids) I was told and read that some viruses are extremely infectious. E.g., very few virus particles of Norovirus (some say less than five) can cause an ...
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How can bodily immune response be tested?

How can the level of bodily immune response be tested? For example, in sepsis the body makes a massive immune response, but in viral diseases, like the common cold, the immune response is less intense....
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Is there some benefit for the body to form a Aphthous ulcers in the mouth?

I am interested in whether the Aphthae ulcers are in some way beneficial for the body in comparison to the same state of the body without forming the Aphthae ulcers.
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Will COVID-19 survivors develop immunity from future infections?

For this question, assume that the virus does not mutate. Can survivors be expected to develop immunity? Why or why not (what is the thought process)? The CDC FAQ indicates that they do not know: ...
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Why does a dental abscess / infection usually go away after a root canal?

After an abscess is diagnosed and a root canal treatment is done on a tooth, why does the infection go away? It seems all the root canal treatment does is remove the total volume of space for the ...
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Will there ever be a universal vaccine for the common cold?

If I get infected once with the virus which causes a common cold, does that mean I will not get infected with the same strain of the virus ever in my lifetime? Is the immune system capable and smart ...
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Are there probiotics for upper respiratory tract tissue?

If the lungs can be subject to bacterial infection, why do there not exist beneficial probiotics that live in lung tissue to combat "bad" bacteria proliferation?
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Would being infected with every kind of cold virus strain at once be a good immunization or dangerous?

I know colds come from around 200 different kinds of viruses. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_cold But would it be worth the risk to be purposefully infected with every type of strain that ...
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What's the primary body entrance + surface of infection for catching the flu?

I realize there are multiple ways, but if you tallied up all the people who caught the flu or a cold last year, what would be the majority... Entrance for infection: Mouth Nose Eyes Ears Skin Bio ...
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Should everyone take the ebola vaccine to achieve global herd immunity?

Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. 1 Should everyone in the ...