Questions tagged [covid-19]

Describes the clinical disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus

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24 views

Why do we need vaccine boosters if covid is still going around?

I understand that some vaccines need boosters, and for most of these it makes sense. You're not constantly exposed to rabies so over time the protection will wear off. But with covid, it's still ...
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Covid-19 vaccine induced immunity [closed]

I have read that it may take anywhere between two to six weeks for the vaccines to "kick in" and elicit a response. Is it possible that a person could contract covid-19 before then and ...
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35 views

How can the J&J vaccine shot be effective against COVID-19 if it only has a ~60% efficacy rate?

According to the CDC's page on the safety of J&J vaccines, the reported efficacy rate of the vaccine is a staggeringly low 66.3%. That said, the government is still promoting and touting the J&...
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36 views

How do we know that mrna-hijacked cells with spike proteins are not harmful to the body?

If I understand mRNA COVID vaccines correctly, they contain some RNA that is inserted into a cell, which then is instructed to produce the spike protein, which is typical for COVID-19 viruses. Once ...
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Which countries recommend Covid vaccine for pregnant women?

It is still controversial if pregnant women should generally be vaccinated against Covid. As far as I understood, the US-american and English authorities recommend vaccination, while the Germans do ...
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What are the websites providing medical articles?

I'm new here and I'm not sure if my question is off topic, however I need some resources about medical articles concerning the effect of covid on health employees. I found a website called sci-hub but ...
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Was there a clear effect attributable to FFP2 (~N95) mask mandates in Germany in crowded environments (shops, buses, etc.)?

Back in January or so, Bavaria at least mandated FFP2 (roughly equivalent to US N95) masks be worn in shops, buses and presumably similar environments. At least Berlin followed suit some months later ...
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33 views

Corona virus and food transmission

I find conflicting info on this CDC cite it says Currently there is no evidence to support transmission of COVID-19 associated with food next it says It may be possible that a person can get COVID-...
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Is there UK data on the reduction in vaccine effectiveness for people who were vaccinated 5+ months ago?

Leaving aside the completely unvaccinated sections of the population (in themselves a huge problem), preliminary data from Israel and the US (in selected cohorts Mayo, CDC--on "frontline" ...
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booster does of pfizer if someone was vaccinated with sinopharm

I am curious if there is established practice of using pfizer as booster if person was vaccinated with sinopharm. One example I think is here which says it is possible https://www.timeoutdubai.com/...
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Is there a more recent official presentation (than Aug 11) on the Israel's Covid-19 vaccine effectiveness, particularly on the booster shot?

If found two-three previous ones (July, 2nd/longer variant, August 11), but Reuters claims on Aug 22 there's one about the booster effectiveness, and it's almost certainly not one of those three I ...
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what is risk of breakthrough infection with pfizer and delta?

There is varying information on this topic, does anybody know is there is any consensus on the rate of breakthrough infections with delta and pfizer vaccine? https://www.cnbc.com/2021/07/23/delta-...
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Does severity of covid vaccine side effects correlate with or suggest anything about how badly that person would have reacted to covid itself? [closed]

Let's say that a person has the covid vaccine and has a relatively bad case of the standard side effects. Does their reaction to the vaccine suggest that they would have also felt very poorly on the ...
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What are the risks associated with imidazoquinoline adjuvant (used in one Covid-19 vaccine) related to development of autoimmune diseases?

Covaxin is an inactivated virus-based COVID-19 vaccine developed by Bharat Biotech. Recently, the Brazilian health regulator Anvisa raised few concerns regarding Covaxin, one of which was- use of a ...
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Who can perfom a nasal swab in California?

What are the guidelines for who can perfom a nasal swab in the state of California? Previously I have heard from an MD that only a CMA, or LVN could perfom this procedure. If it helps I'm specifically ...
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Why was Comirnaty (Pfizer's COVID vaccine) FDA approval only for ages 16+, and not 12+? Will it be expanded to 12+?

From https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-covid-19-vaccine: For Immediate Release: August 23, 2021 Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first ...
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Can lung imaging uniquely identify coronavirus-induced pheumonia?

How reliable are radiographic, CT and ultra-sound appearances of coronavirus in the lungs in terms of their sensitivity/specificity? A bunch of imaging labs popped up in my town recently, all of them ...
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Mix-&-Match of 3 COVID-19 Vaccines?

Now that getting the third shot of COVID-19 vaccine is allowed, which one of the following order of 3 vaccines will lead to better protection and more robust immune system response against Covid-19 ...
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1answer
37 views

How are decisions on sharing of ventilators made and how can risks of doing so be mitigated?

My wife is a respiratory therapist working in an academic medical center in the USA. She works daily with Covid 19 patients performing roles such ventilator management or assisting with intubation. As ...
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1answer
56 views

Vaccine efficacy to get FDA approval

What is the required efficacy level for a COVID-19 vaccine to get FDA approval? I heard the numbers 50% and 60% - but can not find any document which would explicitly say so. My concern is that two ...
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Immunoglobulin E (IgE) level and covid vaccine

I am finding hard to find information if a person has say higher than average level of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is it safe to do covid vaccine?
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How does getting 2 or 3 shots of the Pfizer or Moderna COVID vaccine compare against 1 shot Johnson & Johnson's vaccine + 1 shot of Pfizer or Moderna?

I wonder how does getting 2 or 3 shots of the Pfizer or Moderna COVID vaccine compare against 1 shot Johnson & Johnson's vaccine + 1 or 2 shots of Pfizer or Moderna, in terms of COVID-19 ...
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Does the Pfizer vaccine efficacy wane faster than Moderna's?

Mothership.sg ran this headline: Moderna's Covid-19 shot 93% effective, 6 months after 2nd dose However, Pfizer reported that their shot efficacy would reduce to around 84 per cent over the same time ...
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How would a global vaccination campaign stop COVID-19, rather than favor new mutation?

According to this report by Public Health England (p.35): whilst vaccination may reduce an individual’s overall risk of becoming infected, once they are infected there is limited difference in viral ...
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141 views

For how long does one test positive for COVID-19 after being infected with COVID-19?

I read on https://www.thehealthy.com/infectious-disease/how-long-can-you-test-positive-for-covid/ (mirror): According to the CDC, you can test positive up to three months after exposure even though ...
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Are false negative/positive results of COVID tests independent probabilistic events?

The gist of it Though there are many types of Covid tests, I think none have 100% sensitivity or specificity. What I would like to know is if the event of getting, e.g., a false negative on two tests ...
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COVID vaccines and autoimmune conditions

According to the CDC there are only two contraindications to receiving the COVID vaccine: Severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) after a previous dose or to a component of the COVID-19 vaccine ...
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Asking for scenario studies in epidemiological spread?

In Health economics, my advisors mentioned scenario studies, especially relating to epidemiological spread (for example relating to COVID-19). I am wondering if there is any some cornerstone reference ...
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Are viral loads in vaccinated people only infectious with the delta variant? If so, why not with previous COVID-19 variants?

I'm reading on https://sfist.com/2021/07/27/cdc-confirms-that-viral-loads-in-vaccinated-people-with-delta-are-indistinguishable-from-unvaccinated/ (mirror): CDC Confirms That Viral Loads In ...
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1answer
120 views

Why is booster shot needed when mRNA vaccines can induce memory cells?

My understanding about mRNA Covid-19 vaccines and memory cell is that they do induce memory T cell response similar to natural infection, and thus provide long term protection via the memory cell ...
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How long does it take to develop severe side effects to the Covid-19 vaccines?

I am looking into getting one of the vaccines, but I'm worried about severe side effects. All the articles I have read online say unimportant side effects like fatigue, headache become apparent in a ...
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CDC close contact definition - why masks addressed only in K12 setting?

CDC defines close contact as Someone who was within 6 feet of an infected person (laboratory-confirmed or a clinically compatible illness) for a cumulative total of 15 minutes or more over a 24-hour ...
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Are there any downsides in getting vaccinated with the Pfizer or Moderna COVID vaccine after having received the Johnson & Johnson's COVID-19 vaccine?

I read on https://www.usnews.com/news/health-news/articles/2021-07-01/reports-of-some-getting-pfizer-moderna-boosters-after-j-j-vaccine-prompts-calls-for-more-guidance (mirror): With the delta ...
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Why is the likelihood of fainting after the Johnson & Johnson's COVID-19 Vaccine 163 times higher than the likelihood of fainting after flu vaccine?

I read on https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/janssen.html (mirror): Fainting After Vaccination Fainting (syncope) and other events that may be related to anxiety ...
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If you've already been infected with SARS-CoV-2, do the vaccines cause fewer side effects?

Assuming that I had Covid-19 not so long ago. My body should have produced some type of antibodies to defend against the infection*. If I now get one of the vaccines, would it be more likely that ...
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AstraZeneca total vaccinated up to this day

I'm trying to find answer to question in title but no luck. Is there any verifiable source that can give some estimation on number of people vaccinated with AstraZeneca up to this day?
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What is the current consensus on COVID-19's infection fatality rate?

I've been looking for a solid, commonly accepted range of plausible COVID-19 infection fatality rate numbers. I'd expect this to be somewhat easily found on the CDC's or WHO's website, but I've come ...
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Can mRNAs modify our DNA (publication misunderstanding)?

I am a bit confused about a publication (few month old) which seems to say that RNA can modify our DNA. The publication is the following one. Unfortunately, I am not a medical expert (and even more in ...
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Do any studies on 'Long COVID' compare to a control group?

This study, which is citied in a Harvard Health article on Long COVID, shows that ~55% of people suffered fatigue 6 weeks after having COVID-19: But it doesn't compare against the prevalence of '...
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Why aren't mRNA vaccines being updated for new variants?

From what I understand, updating an mRNA vaccine is trivial. According to this answer, no or small clinical trials would be needed to update the vaccine, and updating production would also be trivial. ...
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Is there any ground to delaying the second dose of of the mRNA covid-19 vaccine to reduce the risk of myocarditis?

Is there and could there be any benefit to delaying the second dose of the mRNA Pfizer covid-19 vaccine when it comes to reducing the risk of myocarditis associated with the vaccine? I'm quite sure ...
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Did the efficacy of any vaccines (>=90%) change after public vaccination began?

As I understand, efficacy was given after the 3rd trial. Pfizer and Sputnik-V had above 90% efficacy. I might have missed others, not sure. After being given to the public as part of vaccination ...
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Which vaccine has the least number of reported users getting infected even after vaccination?

I have been reading news about people getting infected with COVID-19 despite getting the AstraZeneca vaccine. I am not sure if it's similar with other vaccines. May I ask which vaccines have zero (...
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A recent Israeli study found the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine to have only 64% efficacy against the Delta strain - is that with full vaccination?

The numbers from Israel (https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-07-05/israel-sees-decline-in-pfizer-vaccine-efficacy-rate-ynet-says) indicate the Pfizer vaccine is quickly losing efficacy ...
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Why are there such large disparities about the efficacy of a covid-19 vaccine agaisnt the same variants?

I've seen this before with other vaccines (such as Sputnik V and Astrazeneca) but this time since there is no apparent way to justify it, it caught my attention . The efficacy of the Pfizer vaccine ...
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How should we interpret COVID-19 vaccines "efficacy"? [duplicate]

Different COVID-19 vaccines are said to have x% efficacy (x ~ 85%-95%). How should we understand this? There are several ways in which we could interpret this measure: Is it the expected percentage of ...
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1answer
73 views

Is AstraZeneca having better safety record than Pfizer or Moderna?

Recently, AstraZeneca vaccine got some bad press for few cases of blood clouts as side effect leading some countries to even suspend its use for people younger than 56 (see here). I am not a medical ...
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1answer
138 views

Would a SARS-CoV-2 infection disrupt the blood-brain barrier, leaving the brain more vulnerable to drugs taken simultaneously with the infection?

According to some studies[1], there is some evidence that the virus could cross the BBB. Is that is the case, does that mean that it would weaken the barrier allowing potentially neurotoxic drugs to ...
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Why is Taiwan is having a string of COVID-19 cases now?

Taiwan started having COVID-19 cases since May 2021 peaking at 7.5 K and going down now but severe enough that the China mainland stopping vaccine supply was a big deal. What changed from their ...
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Is there any identified policy Australia is doing to successfully control the covid-19 pandemic and have no deaths, other countries aren't using?

According to, Australia COVID Australia had 3 deaths for covid-19 in the last 8 months, and they succesfully controlled the pandemic at least 9 months ago, 3 months before starting vaccinations. ...

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