Questions tagged [covid-19]

Describes the clinical disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus

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Is it ethical to allow informed volunteers to accept a large risk of death as subjects in medical experiments that save many lives on balance?

First responders, firefighters, and soldiers are allowed to volunteer for hazardous missions. Why should people, (soldiers or civilians) not be allowed to sign up for comparably hazardous medical ...
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Is there any study on the efficacy against hospitalizations of the first dose of the Sputnik V vaccine?

For the Sputnik V vaccine there has been a study about the efficacy of the vaccine 2 doses which states it has 91.6% efficacy against infection and a 100% efficacy against hospitalization. Sputnik V ...
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What is the relationship between Herd-Immunity minimum percentage and population size?

Assume we have populations (independent variable): 1.4 Billion (China) 1.3 B (India) 1.3 B / 4 1.3 B / 6 1.3 B / 9 1.3 B / 12 Each population would have a minimum percentage of people necessary to ...
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COVID-19 mutation nomenclature

Consider: Source: Where Do COVID Vaccines Stand Against the Variants? The nomenclature seems to follow a hierarchical pattern. What does the first letter and the subsequent numbers indicate? Location ...
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Did those who lose smell due to covid regain it after all?

We know people for example can lose taste or smell due to covid, some have this even for months, but is there data if people eventually do get this senses back or not?
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Improve How Your Mask Protects You [closed]

CDC says you can improve protection if Use a cloth mask that has multiple layers of fabric. Wear a disposable mask underneath a cloth mask. I am curious about multiple layers of fabric part. This ...
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Are coronavirus-like spikes only seen in viruses?

Are there any natural proteins or cells (or anything) made by the human body with spikes like those of Covid-19? I know that there have been no serious side effects reported from the Covid-19 vaccine, ...
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How is the decision for recommending a vaccine reached

There is an ongoing discussion about the use of the AstraZeneca covid-19 vaccine (Vaxzevria) in Europe. Some countries like Germany restrict the use of this vaccine, some - like Austria - do not. How ...
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How accurate is the individual number covid-19 variant cases in each state?

How accurate is the individual number of covid-19 variant cases in each state? US COVID-19 Cases Caused by Variants I am trying to estimate the risk of being exposed to the one B.1.351 variant where ...
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Why does San Marino have the most total deaths per million and a CFR of 1.8%?

Is there any way that one could explain the following? San Marino has the most total deaths per million and a CFR of 1.8%. Bosnia and Herzegovina is currently 8th for the most total deaths per million ...
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What is missing for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine to get “regular” FDA approval?

Last year, the US FDA issued an "Emergency Use Authorization" for Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine for Covid-19. I read the wikipedia page on what that means, and it seems as though this can be ...
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Covid-19: what's (usually) the probability of getting a negative PCR result conditioned on getting a positive antigen test result first?

It's been pointed out to me that most studies comparing antigen with PCR tests either consider these as independent tests carried out over the whole sample (and report concordance/discordance that way,...
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Is the number of deaths (1,913) amongst people who received a COVID-19 vaccine higher than amongst people who didn't receive a COVID-19 vaccine?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states: Over 109 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines were administered in the United States from December 14, 2020, through March 15, 2021. During this ...
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Why should/shouldn't one fear the long-term health effects of the Covid vaccines?

I'm aware that some people don't want to take a vaccine for Covid-19, and in fact some countries have suspended rollout of some vaccines due to some young people getting blood clots. Also some people ...
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Is there any live tracker following the adverse events for COVID-19 vaccines?

I have seen a few trackers for the vaccination campaign: https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/covid-vaccine-tracker-global-distribution/ https://ourworldindata.org/covid-vaccinations https://www....
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If COVID-19 isn't spread through even food, why is it recommended to disinfect common objects?

Currently, researchers say that there is no evidence of COVID-19 spreading through food: "The risk of getting COVID-19 from food you cook yourself or from handling and consuming food from ...
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Antigen vs PCR test

In the Czech Republic there is now mandatory testing for factory employees. Anecdotally I am now being told by people I am acquainted with, who run medium sized firms here, that their employees are ...
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Can vaccines cause side effects that the virus itself will not cause? [closed]

The COVID vaccines have reignited the discussion about vaccines’ potential side effects. While we all know these are extremely rare, I would like to understand how they are even possible at all. A ...
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Are side effects of corona virus vaccines no worse than virus symptoms?

In my country there is a general fear for side effects of the Pfizer and Astrazeneca vaccines, also due to some deaths among people having taken the vaccine. I reason that since the vaccines replicate ...
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Is there a single documented case of severe COVID-19 in a patient having fully recovered from COVID-19?

Is there a single documented case of severe COVID-19 (reinfection) in a patient having fully recovered from COVID-19? For the purposes of this question, I'm excluding people with an immune disease, ...
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How can I find a list of active principles and ATC codes of Germany?

Every country has its own ATC code with a list of active principles and you can find a file of it but only in pdf, not in a format like xml/xls. Does anyone have a link to do a different download of ...
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What effect does social distancing have on the contagiousness and lethality of virus spread?

There are various degrees of 'lockdown'. From poorly worn masks and poor material choices, to people being confined to their homes for long periods of time. It is safe to assume that practical ...
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What's the difference between rt-PCR COVID-19 test using different lengths of nose swab?

I read: Our nose swabs only enter the nose ½ inch, not all the way up the nostril, ensuring no pain or damage. A few months ago, I had a COVID-19 test with a nose swabs that looked like ~5cm. What's ...
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Is the Cytokine Storm the root cause of fatality mechanisms of COVID-19?

A cytokine storm means a cell pathway has been turned on, leading to the production of a number of biological mediators (which are kind of like signal transmitters) that cause changes to the body and ...
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What is the minimum air temperature that can kill SARS-CoV-2 instantaneously?

I found this paper that talked about an air filtration system that heats up air to 200°C that kills SARS-CoV-2 in a single pass. But they seem to not be so sure of how hot it should actually be. I've ...
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Covid19 Rapid serological tests and Vaccine

Let's say that once I'm vaccinated I try the rapid serological test and the result is negative. My question is: let's admit that the reliability of the test is 100%; does it mean that the vaccine didn'...
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Why wouldn't the Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines be equally effective?

Based on what I have read, the Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, and Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccines all work by training the immune system to recognize the spike protein on the surface of the ...
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How are two-dose vaccine schedules developed?

How are vaccination schedules determined for multi-dose vaccines? That is, are several different schedules tested in an early-phase trial? Or do the developers of a vaccine choose a schedule (based on ...
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Are Covishield and AstraZeneca AZD1222 the same?

Some sources simply equate the two. On the other hand, Covishield seems to be undergoing its own clinical trials. The statement by the Indian authorities calls it “Recombinant Chimpanzee Adenovirus ...
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What protection does T-cell immunity confer for Covid?

This preprint, which was just released today, says that while some of the Covid-19 variants evade antibody immunity, they do not evade T-cell immunity. It says that this is true both of T-cell ...
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UPDATED Why is the new viral vector vaccine unable to modify human DNA?

UPDATE: Adding additional information after digging around. First, I am not a medical professional. I found this article studying the rates of DNA integration via adenovirus vectors in mice, ...
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Do partial lockdown/social-distancing measures lead to more contagious and more deadly (Covid) virus mutations? [closed]

Reduction in social contact, without full restriction of social contact, creates an environment where the 'success' of a virus depends more on how infectious it is and less on how good it is at ...
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Is there a simple way to quantify viral content beeing exhaled by a person potentially independent of the specific virus type?

As far as I have understood it, persons who have contacted virusses (that are to a substantial part transmitted through the air, such as covid-19) tend to be only or most strong infectuous during a ...
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COVID-19 vaccination second doses: why two doses and why the specified interval?

Certain COVID-19 vaccines such as the Pfizer BioNTech and Moderna are specified to be administered in two doses separated by a 21 and 28 day interval, respectively. My questions are: Why administered ...
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By what mechanism did Sweden have a second wave of COVID-19?

I have often heard the theory that the waves in, for example, the UK, were caused by a harsh lockdown, followed by a release that kicked off the second wave. To my knowledge, Sweden did not relax its ...
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What are the most common ways that COVID kills?

Looking at the death counts for 2020 published on the CDC's website, total deaths "involving COVID-19" were 375,581, but total deaths "involving COVID-19 and pneumonia" were only ...
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Moderna vs Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine mechanisms

It is my understanding that both mRNA vaccines encode for a pathogen-like protein that prompts the immune system to bind to the simulated pathogen and render it harmless. Does the Pfizer and Moderna ...
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Are there any randomized clinical trials being conducted on TMPRSS2 inhibitors for Covid-19 treatment?

In a recent paper on why hydroxychloroquine doesn't really work against Covid-19, it's been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 is much better at taking advantage of TMPRSS2 at the cell membrane surface, so ...
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Can COVID-19 vaccines cause birth defects?

Have regulators historically allowed enough time for Phase 3 trials to show that a vaccine does not cause congenital defects? Are they making an exception for Covid vaccines? Because the Pfizer/...
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Acetaminophen and/or ibuprofen before or after vaccination

All of a sudden (yesterday apparently) there blossomed on the major news outlets an admonition not to take either Tylenol or Advil prior to and or immediately after Covid-19 vaccination. The logic ...
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Frequency of reactions to Covid19 vaccinations

Facebook is replete with comments that 'the aftermath of the second Moderna vaccine shot was wicked', 'hit me much harder than the first' etc Understanding that many facebook postings are unreliable ...
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How well are the covid-19 vaccines doing in the field?

By now, millions of people have been given the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines in the US, and the same is true for those and other vaccines in many other countries. I have not found in the media any news ...
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How contagious is Covid-19 - in laypersons terms?

The Covid-19 epidemic has been with us for nearly a year, and I'm still having trouble understanding in simple terms just how contagious it is or isn't. Lets say I have a 1 hour face-to-face ...
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How fast could mRNA COVID manufacturers switch from the Wuhan strain to e.g. B.1.1.7 and why?

I understand that the time it took Modena to go from the SARS-CoV-2 sequence to shipping doses for clinical trial was 44 days: https://www.modernatx.com/modernas-work-potential-vaccine-against-covid-...
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Would vaccines against COVID variants (e.g. B.1.1.7) need *additional* clinical trials?

Every year, the influenza vaccine changes a little bit, incorporating different strains every year. I believe that these vaccine variants don't have to undergo clinical trials, that they piggyback on ...
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How much more protection does doubling up masks offer for COVID-19?

I have read several news articles mentioning that doubling up masks offer some additional protection for COVID-19. E.g. https://denver.cbslocal.com/2021/01/20/doubling-up-face-masks-creates-obstacle-...
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What are the pitfalls using the standard vaccine effectiveness calculation process if applied to reinfectivity observations?

Phase 3 clinical trials for Covid-19 vaccines have been completed, and the "effectiveness" values have been made available. The trials involved a placebo arm, such that if the vaccine were ...
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Are “some serious side effects and deaths expected” from a mass vaccination campaign of a new vaccine?

According to What is known so far about the post vaccination deaths in Norway Medical director Steinar Madsen stated, Q: Were these problems unexpected? A: No. A mass vaccination campaign by ...
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Why does the Pfizer’s Covid vaccine cause more intense intense symptoms after second shot then after the first shot?

cnbc.com (mirror) mentions: The FDA says Pfizer’s Covid vaccine is safe and effective. But trial participants warn of intense symptoms after second shot. Why does the Pfizer’s Covid vaccine cause ...
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Covid-19 mortality rates lower among some diabetes patients

It has been found that hospitalized COVID-19 patients have a greater risk of dying if they are men or are obese or have complications from diabetes or hypertension (University of Maryland School of ...

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