Questions tagged [terminology]

This tag should be used for questions concerning meaning and usage of words as applied in medical science.

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Question related to admission to medical school [closed]

I live, study and work in Russia. I want to be educated as a military doctor in the USA and then move to live in Switzerland, and then move to live in Switzerland and work on my higher education there....
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Meaning of "Assessment of improvement is contingent on optimization of treatments"

From the International Consensus Recommendations for the Treatment of Pediatric NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis, Table 3: 3.3.1. Assessment of improvement following immunotherapy (i.e., failure to ...
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What is "redosing"?

From the International Consensus Recommendations for the Treatment of Pediatric NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis, table 4: Maintenance (>6 mo) immune suppression: Rituximab redosing (same doses as ...
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What's the name for food poisoning where the symptoms are solely caused by toxins that have accumulated in the food?

I'm trying to understand more about the type of food poisoning caused by toxins that were present in the food at the time it was eaten, that can quickly cause diarrhoea and vomiting that may only last ...
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Meaning of a sentence about selection of experts for a consensus guideline

From "International Consensus Recommendations for the Treatment of Pediatric NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis": A steering committee (R.C.D., M.L., T.T., M.N., and M.E.) carefully selected a ...
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What is the meaning of "co-formulated"?

I was reading the The right drug for the right patient section of the University of Sydney website, which provides these clinical guidelines (flow chart), and says (bold my own): There are no studies ...
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Is there a modern term for "pessary cell"?

I was reading about the vitamin B12, and came across the description of a rare syndrome, with a mention of the "pessary cell" (a red blood cell in which the hemoglobin has disappeared from ...
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"Focal tear of the [ligament name]" vs. "Tear of the [ligament name]"

I am reading some MRI report and see "Focal tear of the [ligament name]". what does the adjective add? In other words, what is the difference between "Focal tear of the [ligament name]&...
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What is the correct or preferred nomenclatural vernacular for physical examinations?

I was using a running log app and came across terminology commonly used to describe a "physical" — as in a type of medical provider visit that is scheduled once a year and typically requires ...
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What does "c/f" mean in a hospital discharge summary?

I'm reading a discharge summary received from a hospital and cannot decipher the "c/f" abbreviation. Here is the text: given c/f possible hepatic encephalopathy, started lactulose I put &...
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Meaning of prevalent/incident/new/cleared HPV infections in this table

I am having difficulties understanding the following table from the study Incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus infection in men (HIM): a cohort study. I think I might be reading the ...
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What does "oppose" mean in this context: opposition of the wound edges?

Been interested in cyanoacrylates and their applications to wound closures and ran across this new usage for "oppose", "opposed", and "opposition". Researching further ...
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What is the terminology used for non-invasive treatments?

When a condition is being treated by non-invasive, non-drug methods, what is that called? For example, if the patient has elevated blood pressure and the doctor recommends exercising, a low salt diet ...
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What is the difference between Nasion and Root of Nose?

I am now studying the area of the nose and getting acquainted with the anatomy of this place - I came across these two terms. I originally thought that Nazion is where Frontal bone and Nasal bones ...
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Is there a medical term for the thickness of the human torso, as measured from its back to its front?

Let's say that you took the measurement of how thick a person's torso is; specifically, by measuring between the following two points: the skin on their chest, slightly above the navel to the skin ...
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What is the difference between lifetime incidence and cumulative lifetime incidence?

I read on https://lermagazine.com/article/achilles-experts-ponder-effects-of-heel-elevation: In athletes, Achilles tendinopathy has a prevalence of 19% and a cumulative lifetime incidence of 24%. ...
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Terminology for vaccinating with multiple vaccines?

If one were to be "fully vaccinated" with 2 doses of the Pfizer for COVID19 and then six months later vaccinate with the Moderna version: What is the word or phrase to indicate such a ...
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How is "absolute risk of death" from covid (or something else) usually defined for infectious diseases?

There's been some discussion on Twitter regarding whether a BBC article is misleading or not. The article says: Researchers estimate that 25 deaths in a population of some 12 million children in ...
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Why was the fact that the Fc-part of an antibody is crystallizable important enough that the part was named after it? (Fc ="Fragment crystallizable")

The typical Y-shape structure of an antibody is often further divided into three parts which correspond to the fragments one obtain when the antibody is digested by the protease papain. Those are: ...
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Relationship between Th1 and Th2 and their cross-regulation (+ understanding what cross-regulation means)

Apologies, biology is not my area of expertise but I do have an interest in it. I "know" that Th1 and Th2 cross-regulate but I'm not sure what that means... Could it mean that if one ...
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Why are Ground Glass Opacities termed "Ground Glass"?

What exactly is "ground glass", if this exists? How do GGOs relate to "ground glass"? Rather than "ground glass", why not call these light-coloured or gray or ...
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1 answer
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Erysipelas vs cellulitis vs paronychia

According to Wikipedia: "Erysipelas is a relatively common bacterial infection of the superficial layer of the skin."(1) "Cellulitis is a bacterial infection involving the inner layers ...
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Meaning of "early neurotoxicity" in description of methotrexate treatment effects - at an early age? or an early-stage neurotoxicity?

From a guideline: Due to the inhibitory effect of methotrexate on DHPR and the interaction with dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), this treatment may lead to HPA and early neurotoxicity, possibly ...
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Daily dose of recommended water

Here (https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/how-much-water-should-you-drink) it says to drink four-to-six cup of water. I find it weird that they don't mention how big the cup should be? How ...
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Meaning of "Routine" in "Routine imaging of the brain is not required to diagnose BH4Ds"

From Consensus guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiencies Recommendation #27 (conditional): Routine imaging of the brain is not required to diagnose BH4Ds. ...
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Meaning of "Evaluation for inpatient hospitalization, either by on-site psychiatric professional or through an emergency room"

From Table 5 in Psychiatric Emergencies: Assessing and Managing Suicidal Ideation Evaluation for inpatient hospitalization, either by on-site psychiatric professional or through an emergency room. ...
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What are "baseline chronic risk factors" in a table describing levels of suicidality risk in a scientific paper?

From Table 5 in Psychiatric Emergencies: Assessing and Managing Suicidal Ideation Baseline chronic risk factors. Minimal mood symptoms. Maintained self-control. Rare acute risk factors. What are &...
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1 vote
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Meaning of "natural" in "high natural protein intake" in a consensus guideline on BH4 deficiencies

From the Consensus guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiencies: Apart from BH4Ds, the differential diagnosis of HPA includes phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Is their terminology for varying bone fracture severity?

I have done research on the various different types of bone fractures however I am not able to find any resources discussing specifically the severity of fractures. For example I had assumed that the ...
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What does "favorable pharmacological profile" mean?

In the context of a new drug going through trials, what does "favorable pharmacological profile" mean? e.g. YTX-7739, a potential disease-modifying therapy for Parkinson’s disease, was safe,...
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What is the meaning of "subcortical retraction" in a description of MRI of a Kearns-Sayre syndrome patient?

I came across the term subcortical retraction and cannot understand its meaning. Does it mean "the withering of the subcortical areas" (shrinking of subcortical white matter)? From Follow-up ...
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3 votes
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Term for a person who sleeps as they need to, rather than with any regular pattern?

Is there a term for a condition or inclination of only sleeping on an as-needs basis? (analogous, perhaps, to hydration habits, where some people may have a regular pattern for when they drink water, ...
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Is there a term for a blood pressure level that is too high but which is typical for the patient and causes no symptoms?

In Russian, there is a semi-colloquial medical term "рабочее давление" (working pressure) - the blood pressure that is excessive, but is typical for this particular patient and causes no ...
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What is the name of the condition where you remember something while doing it together with others, but forget when you do it alone?

I want to know the name (if there is one) of the condition where you remember things while you do it on a repeated basis with a whole group of people, but forget when you are doing it alone, as if you ...
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2 votes
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Does "gram negative" generally indicate highly antibiotics resistant bacteria strains?

I must admit that I am an absolute medical layman, trying to keep myself informed at best though. Today I had a consultation at my dermatologist about a bad healing wound I have, to talk about the ...
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3 votes
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What is "recognized clinically"? Is there any special meaning in the word "clinically" here?

Quote: Many patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) experience long delays between their first symptom and initial diagnosis of AATD and require many encounters with healthcare providers ...
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What determines "flexion" vs "extension" terminology? [closed]

Why is lifting your arm (or leg) in front of your body (like a Nazi salute, rather than swinging it behind your back like a martial arts shoulder pin) called flexion rather than extension? And why is ...
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Meaning of the word "term" in a psychiatry article (depression biomarkers)

From Prognosis and improved outcomes in major depression: a review I don't understand the meaning of term - does it have the "time meaning" (particular stage in the course of disease) or ...
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2 votes
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Do "a joint sprain" and "a joint displacement" mean the same thing?

According to Cambridge Dictionary, "sprain" means an injury to a joint (= a place where two bones are connected) caused by a sudden movement Do "a joint sprain" and "a joint ...
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What's the proper terminology for the cumulative existence of a disease in a patient?

I'm looking for the medical term that refers to the cumulative time a patient has suffered from a particular disease. For instance, if Jane was diagnosed with diabetes when she was 42, and now she's ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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How do I specify a particular side of a finger?

I'm trying to indicate which side of a finger an injury has occurred (e.g., a cut). Depending on orientation of the hand left/right / sinister/dexter seems ambiguous. I look at my palms it's one way, ...
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Meaning of "I" in a table in a study poster

From a poster to a study: I don't understand the meaning of "I" used in several fields of this table. What could it mean? I've read the abstract of the study but still cannot get it. The ...
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Meaning of "(ref)" in a table describing the characteristics of patients taking part in a cancer study

From a poster describing a study in cancer patients. This is from a table in the poster, which describes the characteristics of the patients (Age groups, Sex ect.) You can see what percentage of the ...
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Meaning of "the benchmark for median survival"

From the Background section of a clinical trial poster: Good performance, unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients should receive standard-of-care treatment, i.e. Concurrent ...
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Meaning of "D1 q3w" in a poster to a clinical trial

From a poster to a clinical trial: I can understand that q3w means "once every 3 weeks", but what is the meaning of D1? I think the first DI must be a typo and it stands for D1 too.
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What is the meaning of "presence of a diagnosis"?

From a research paper Percentages and means for baseline characteristics and 2-year course indicators were provided across age groups. Additionally, these characteristics were associated with ...
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What is the medical meaning of "course"?

From the Cambridge Dictionary Meaning of course: the often gradual development of something, or the way something happens, or a way of doing something Did the scandal have any effect on the course of ...
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Suture types (layman question)

I hope it's okay to ask a layman question here. I am translating one of the episodes of Grey's Anatomy (S5E9) and came upon this dialogue: Dr. Bailey: OK, yeah, that's right. Grey, tie it off ...
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Confirmed, recovered, deaths, meaning

I am wondering about the exact definition of a few terms that are being used in connection with the COVID-19, specifically in data sets. I am interested in the data at github specifically in the time ...
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Meaning of "correlates" in ".. clinical therapeutic studies of LAC in depression and TRD and its correlates .. "

From "Myriad of implications of acetyl-l-carnitine deficits in depression": Nasca et al. (1) were appropriately conservative in interpreting their findings and pointing out multiple directions for ...
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