Questions tagged [terminology]

This tag should be used for questions concerning meaning and usage of words as applied in medical science.

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Meaning of “terminal” in “terminal necropsy”

From a clinical study report: At scheduled terminal necropsy after 52 weeks of dosing there limited gross necropsy findings were noted. What is the meaning of "terminal" here? I need to translate ...
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31 views

What is the difference between vasoconstriction and contractility?

I was reading few articles that mention stress induced cortisol may contribute to vasoconstriction and contractility as if they are different. I did some searches on vasoconstriction and ...
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What are “powered” vs “unpowered” samples in medical studies?

I'm not a medical (/ medical research) professional, but I know my probability theory and a bit of statistics. When leafing through some meta-study texts (such as this one), I'm encountering use of ...
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117 views

Meaning of “sib of 20” in a by-patient case description table

A table from from Cerebral folate deficiency: Analytical tests and differential diagnosis: The first column contains patient numbers. I thought that sib of .. meant "sibship of .." - that is, "...
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Is there a classification code system for TB patients (registered for follow-up) in the West?

I came across the following sentence in a Russian text: Диссеминированный туберкулез легких в фазе инфильтрации, МБТ (-) IА I translated it as: Disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis at the ...
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147 views

Colorectal Examinations

This question was sparked by the question on X is related posteriorly to Y where it was talking about the sigmoid and rectum. When looking at the colorectal medical examination techniques, for want ...
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What is the difference between “mild degeneration of the muscular attachment of the gluteus medius” and “mild tendinosis of the left gluteus medius”?

I have read the following two terms: mild degeneration of the muscular attachment of the left gluteus medius mild tendinosis of the left gluteus medius Do these two terms refer to the same medical ...
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Term for manufactured drug

What is the English term for a manufactured pharmaceutical drug of a specific strength and dosage form, i.e. a pill, an ointment etcetera?
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Does “400 mg orally twice daily” mean “800 mg of drug per day”?

From a case report: In addition, the authors started 5-hydroxytryptophan titrated to 400 mg orally twice daily with concomittant carbidopa 37.5 mg orally four times a day, and he responded with ...
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Meaning of “potential pharmacogenetic characterisation might also be evaluated so that these syndromes are treated at an earlier age.”

This could be offtopic because this might be just a case of sloppy phrasing and a case of "asking to guess what the authors really meant". A quote from an abstract (GTP-cyclohydrolase deficiency ...
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Meaning of “at baseline” in “Detection of antibodies at baseline in schizophrenia or major depression”

From The basis for folinic acid treatment in neuro-psychiatric disorders by Ramaekers et al., 2016, at the very end of the article: Because the presence of FRα antibodies can show significant serum ...
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Is the abbreviation“r/o” on a test report used in the declarative or imperative sense?

I read something similar to this on the radiologist's report for a chest/abdominal CT scan with contrast, in a section headed "NARRATIVE" and a sub-section headed "HISTORY." This is the only content ...
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59 views

What is the name for the symptom of mishearing words?

There’s a really interesting symptom I remember hearing about, wherein the patient will fail to understand certain sounds correctly, in a repeatable fashion. For example, the patient could be ...
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Meaning of “Chest wall, Sp, Ps” in a description of tumor recurrence locations

From a clinical trial report: I think that Ps stands for parasternal (nodes) but what could Sp mean? I haven't found a mention of "Sp" in the literature by googling for about 20 minutes. P.S. ...
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64 views

How is “histologically invasive diameter” assessed in live patients?

Quote: A total of 34 patients were registered between July 2009 and June 2012. The mean age was 53.5 years. The median follow-up time was 23.7 months (2-24 months). The age at the time of ...
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Meaning of “central registration system” in Japanese clinical trials

Quote from a Japanese clinical trial report: METHOD: An observational study was conducted on patients who relapsed after primary systemic therapy with TZM using the central registration system. The ...
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Meaning of “platinum sensitivity and primary PFI being repowered as prognostic factors”

Quote from a clinical trial report: Recurrence eventually affects 70–80% of patients with advanced epithelial ovar-ian cancer [2, 22], with platinum sensitivity and primary PFI being repowered as ...
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Are “data cut off” and “data lock” the same thing in a clinical trial?

Quotes from a clinical trial report (JGOG3022 trial): Follow-up was terminated in February 2017 and data were locked in October 2017. Of the 346 patients enrolled, ineligible patients and patients ...
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What is the purpose of the “observation cohort” in a clinical trial?

Quote from a clinical trial report (JGOG3022 trial): Patients who were scheduled to receive bevacizumab concomitantly with platinum-based combination chemotherapy after PDS or IDS were included in ...
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Isn't “epithelial carcinoma” a tautological term? Are there non-epithelial carcinomas?

From "Bevacizumab combined with platinum–taxane chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced ovarian cancer: a prospective observational study of safety and efficacy in Japanese patients (...
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52 views

What are “cryptic bacteria”?

I came across the term "cryptic bacteria" a few times in the context of biochemistry (Google search), but I couldn't find a definition. What does "cryptic" mean in that context?
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220 views

What is the difference between “comorbidity” and “multimorbidity”?

I am doing a search on how the number of conditions can cause disease burden. I came across the terms comorbidity and multimorbidty in my search and I wanted to know the difference between the two. ...
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Is adrenaline a coctail of hormones, rather than one hormone?

Although it has been called the "Fight or Flight Hormone" adrenaline can be better described as 'Do it NOW!!! hormones." First things first, notice the 's.' Adrenaline isn't just one thing, but a ...
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45 views

What is the name of term for series of studies for the same patient?

If we have a series of assessment of lesion for some patient, how is it called in English? Looks like the study term is used for every single assessment(visit). How the whole series is called?
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Is lipaemia the same as hyperlipidemia?

I'm translating a Russian text and one of the sentences goes like this: Среди сывороток были образцы с гемолизом и липемией. The serum samples contained samples with hemolysis and lipaemia. I ...
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What is the difference between “clinician” and “therapist”?

I am reading the book Mindfulness and Psychotherapy, and at first I thought clinician and therapist are used interchangeably, but it seems not. So is there any difference between the two? If yes, is ...
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Abnormal shrinkage of the eyeball

Is there a condition which describes an abnormal shrinkage of the eyeball? That is, a counterpart to buphthalmos (an abnormal enlargement of the eyeball).
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579 views

Is hydrothorax considered as edema?

In _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed., edema is defined as [E]dema is an accumulation of interstitial fluid within tissues. Extravascular fluid can also collect in body cavities such as the ...
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Diagnosing by ruling things out

What is the technical term for a condition that is diagnosed by ruling everything else out?
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What would a surgeon write about a non-complicated scar in a post-surgery inspection report?

I have a short post-surgery inspection report in Russian: Осмотр после операции. Рубец спокойный. Verbatim translation: Post-surgery examination. The scar is calm. This calm denotes that the ...
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31 views

Definition of “prospective birth cohort study”

From a news article: “Prospective birth cohort studies suggest that childhood infections are associated with increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood and with abnormal neurodevelopment in ...
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Meaning of “shared familial confounding” in a study

From a news report: Using population-based, longitudinal cohort study data from Sweden, researchers examined the relationship of infection during childhood with IQ and adult nonaffective psychosis....
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Why was 'strabismus' chosen to mean 'any misalignment of the eyes'?

The AAO and AAPOS don't associate strabismus with squinting. So why was a word etymologically meaning 'squinting' adopted to describe this muscle condition? "a squinting," 1680s, medical Latin, ...
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English-language term for “productive vasculitis”

I'm translating a Russian text that gives a description of necropsy results. It mentions "productive vasculitis": Сосуды вокруг участка гранулематозного воспаления с признаками продуктивного ...
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124 views

What is the process called, when a doctor tries to figure out what is wrong with you?

I know that anamnesis is the process of asking potentially relevant questions for building a medical history of a patient. I think this involves: Getting to know past illnesses of the patient Getting ...
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What is sleep pressure?

What is sleep pressure? I was reading an article on melatonin, and one of the commenters said something about 'sleep pressure'. I did a web search to see what it was, but web searches don't often ...
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What would you call the following type of injury?

Having fallen onto your hands and knees on asphalt, the top layer of skin is gone from your wrists, and you can see tiny amounts of blood that are not coming out of anywhere in particular (perhaps the ...
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Is there a service that translates medical reports into everyday language?

Medical reports can be quite long and may contain complicated vocabulary that is difficult or impossible for patients to understand. In Germany, there’s a website called Was hab’ ich? (“What do I ...
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What is the meaning of “WES” “LEG” or “CAD” written next to a prescription?

I have 2 prescriptions of Predinisone, and on one of them it is written, "PredniSONE 5MG TAB WES" and on another one it is written, "PREDNISONE 10MG TAB CAD." Are they the same formula and only differ ...
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What is the definition of Suicidal Ideation?

Many resources on depression and suicide use the term "suicidal ideation" as an important sign/symptom. Some sources (e.g. Krahn, Miller, and Bergstrom, Rapid Resolution of Intense Suicidal Ideation ...
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What are the food behaviors of anorexic patients?

I'm a medical student reading a book about nutrition and Metabolism. In the description of Anorexia nervosa patients the writer states that She has a preoccupation with, and often a considerable ...
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352 views

What is the name for an underdeveloped MCP joint in the thumb?

Lets say a person is born with both thumbs unable to "bend" more than 5 degrees at the MCP joint (center or middle joint). This picture is of a thumb bending well over 45 degrees at the same joint.
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Reading radiology reports: What do two numbers separated by a slash mean?

The following is an excerpt from the "findings" section of an MRI radiology report. What do the instances of two numbers separated by a slash mean? There is a lesion within the spinal canal at T2-3 ...
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Condition of mucus coated trachea, but clear lungs?

Is there a medical condition or illness (what's the terminology??) for when there is an acute incidence of when the trachea is coated with so much mucus and phlegm that it causes labored breathing and ...
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What is a Lymph Node Collection

I'm looking at my results from a C/T I had a year ago, because my doctor wants to get another since my lymph node is still enlarged. When I looked at the results I saw The right axillary region ...
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What are “sunset additives”?

In relation to stories such as this one, with the (probably sensationalized?) headline of "Nigerians boycott Coca-Cola drinks after court rules them 'poisonous'": Consumers of Sprite and Fanta have ...
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I'm scared of certain celestial objects

I have a huge fear of photos of certain things in space. Here's a list: Nebula Galaxies Planets I am not scared of photos of stars (like the sun or distant stars), galaxy or star clusters (far away ...
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Do premiums count towards out of pocket maximum? [closed]

There are several terms to think about: premium - the monthly cost of a plan deductible - the amount you pay before your insurance kicks in coinsurance - the amount you pay after your insurance kicks ...
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STarT Questionnaire Meaning

When referring to the STarT questionnaire. Why is "STarT" capitalised like that? I can't seem to find a definition of it as an acronym. The STarT questionnaire, also know as the STarT Back ...
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Why do I feel small stings all over my body in stress?

I've realized I'm expierencing stress (or rather embarassment) quite differently than I used to. Like a year ago (I was 16) I expierenced stress just as a short warming up of my shoulders. For the ...