Questions tagged [immune-system]

The group of cellular and molecular processes that the body uses to fight bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. Autoimmune and inflammatory disease are caused by malfunctioning of this system and should also be tagged with the disease name.

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Does stimulating lymph flow speed up adaptive immune response?

TL;DR it seems that one mayor factor slowing down the adaptive immune response is the slowness with which Dendritic cells travel through the lymphatic system. Is it effective for to purposefully ...
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How does a thymus transplantation work? Why doesn't it result in rejection of the recipient's... everything?

I read that DiGeorge syndrome can result in a baby being born completely lacking a thymus. That page also says that this can be treated through thymus transplantation. My understanding of the thymus ...
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How much does one night of reduced sleep impair immune function?

I just watched the Sleep is your superpower TED talk by Prof. Matt Walker. In that video, he claims that 1 night of sleeping only 4 hours reduces natural killer cell activity by 70%. My first ...
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What is the mechanism of immune privilege that prevents immunological damage in some organs?

I was reading about immune privilege in a paper called Immune Privilege of Heart Valves by Hill et al. Immune privilege is summarised as follows: Immune privilege is an evolutionary adaptation that ...
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Type of hypoalergenic milk to supplement breastfeeding?

As I am already asking here: Allergy prevention: long duration of breast feeding vs early exposure to allergens - how does that fit together? Isn't this contradictory? I am a quite puzzled by the ...
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Allergy prevention: long duration of breast feeding vs early exposure to allergens - how does that fit together?

So, as a proud father of a two-months old daughter, whose mom has many rather strong allergies and heavy asthma passed down through several generations we'd like to suppress her developing of ...
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How does immunity against HPV work?

Premises: The HPV vaccine(s) protect against infection with several HPV strains (the number depending on the exact vaccine), but don't cure existing infections. HPV is not a blood-borne disease, i.e. ...
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CAR-T therapy for cardiac sarcoidosis?

Do you know whether CAR-T therapy to replace fibrotic cells in the heart might apply to scarring from cardiac sarcoidosis? The articles below are from Penn research that shows they are able to replace ...
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Does prior COVID infection increase or decrease mortality on COVID reinfection?

One recent large scale study found that a prior COVID infection doubles your risk of dying when you later catch a subsequent COVID infection. This study followed 5 million people in the Veterans ...
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The hidden cost of skipping nursery between 1-3 years to avoid "avoidable" infections

Assuming families have the option to provide child care for babies either at home (1-on-1) or at the nursery (in groups of 10-15 babies), which option is a better strategy from the point of view of ...
4 votes
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Does the immune system receive equivalent results when doing inactive exercise like when doing active exercise?

If I use a pedal exerciser, my legs need to actively push the pedal. However, if I attach my feet on the machinery pedal and let the machine rotate, my legs are still moving. I call that "...
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Why do we need booster shots, for some viruses but not the others?

When being vaccinated we are given viruses that have been killed or made 'not working' in some other way. Then we get B and T cells that can 'kill' it. For example, for polio, memory B and T cells ...
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APC cells - autoreactivity [closed]

How can APC cells become autoreactiv against own antigens if they only have PRR as recognition complexes - and are not under central/peripheral immune tolerance?
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Hyposecretion of cortisol lead to depressed immune system?

I understand that cortisol decreases both the number of white blood cells and the secretion of inflammatory chemical from tissues. So shouldn't a under(hypo) secretion of cortisol, lead to an ...
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How does interferon beta 1-A help patients with multiple sclerosis?

I know that azathioprine weakens the immune system by reducing white blood cell count. I've read that interferons boost the immune system against viruses. They seem to have different functions, but ...
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What would happen if non-cellular immune responses didn’t happen? [closed]

First things first, I’m not from a medical background, so apologies for the slightly vague question and any other poor wording throughout. I’ve recently caught a nasty cold, and as such I’ve acquired ...
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How can vaccines be effective against respiratory viruses when it is the innate immune system that is the primary response to such pathogens?

I don't understand how vaccines can be thought to be effective against respiratory viruses. We have influenza "vaccines" and now the new mRNA vaccine against COVID-19. However, my ...
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How durable is a human immunity to an adenovirus (at least specific serotypes)?

There are few SARS-Cov-2 vaccines that use adenovirus vectors as vehicles (human's Ad5, Ad26, chimps' ChAdOx1, probably something else). A side effect of such a vaccine is that an inoculated organism ...
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Antibodies and Immune system

I was just educated by my physician about some details of the differences between the qualitative and the semi-quantitative COVID-19 antibody tests. I understand now that the result of the semi-...
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What is the Fatality Rate of the Common Cold? [closed]

During COVID-19, we've heard many comparisons between SARS-CoV-2 and the Flu, especially in terms of the case fatality rate (CFR). Currently, the Flu is thought to be around 0.1%, and according to the ...
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What is the current evidence on treating back injury?

I've been researching this topic for a while and found many contradictory results all over the place. I've left the more general "back pain" because I kind of get the same inconclusive ...
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Using Pfizer as a booster dose if someone was vaccinated with Sinopharm: what is good practice? [closed]

I am curious if there is established practice of using Pfizer as a booster dose if a person was vaccinated with Sinopharm. One example I think is here which says it is possible https://www....
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what is the mechanism through which TLR 7 agonist causes autoimmune disease?

TLR 7 agonist has been linked with development of autoimmune disease, namely lupus like disease. The question is, why does it happen? I think a mechanism of why it happens would also reveal answers to ...
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What is the mechanism through which TLR 7/8 agonist is useful as an adjuvant in an inactivated vaccine?

My layman understanding is that a Toll like receptor (TLR) is an entity that detects foreign substances in the body and creates an alert about them and an appropriate response ensues. A TLR 7 and 8 ...
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Vaccine death efficacy calculation and how it works

I am no medical expert, am just curious how vaccines work in general, especially in preventing severe illness and deaths. I have read articles, seen videos on youtube, and seen how efficacy is ...
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Do facemasks and social distancing weaken the immune system because of reduced exposure to pathogens?

I am operating under the following premises: The immune system needs to be constantly trained by exposure to pathogens to remain effective. I remember having read that the reason why little children ...
6 votes
1 answer
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How long does it take for the COVID-19 antibody to disappear?

I saw a news article says; 90 days after the infection with ncov19, several patients had no detectable antibodies in their bloodstream. This seems to be one of their evidence that immunity against ...
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Can someone have an allergic reaction to a virus?

My understanding of allergies is that they are more or less immune responses to non-pathogenic substances. The definition on MedicineNet more or less agrees with this. While I don't have any known ...
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Covid vaccine second dose side effects and immunity

Does experiencing side effects such as fever/headache/muscle ache after the second dose of vaccine mean that immune system is weak and catching covid would have been more dangerous in comparison to ...
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what is risk of breakthrough infection with pfizer and delta?

There is varying information on this topic, does anybody know is there is any consensus on the rate of breakthrough infections with delta and pfizer vaccine? https://www.cnbc.com/2021/07/23/delta-...
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Why is booster shot needed when mRNA vaccines can induce memory cells?

My understanding about mRNA Covid-19 vaccines and memory cell is that they do induce memory T cell response similar to natural infection, and thus provide long term protection via the memory cell ...
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(How) does taking all available vaccines contribute to cross- and trained immunity?

Many countries have national vaccination campaigns that consists of vaccines against several different diseases. I expect that the choice of vaccines that are included in such programs is mainly ...
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Do immune system challenges affect age related immune response decline?

Load bearing exercise is known to help maintain strong bones as we age. Physical exercise prevents muscle atrophy and promotes overall body and organ health. It is also known that cognitive ...
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Is it considered eosinophilia if the total eosinophil count is normal but the eosinophil percentage is high?

If the total eosinophil count is normal but the eosinophil percentage is high, is it considered eosinophilia, or is it merely grounds for a rerun of the test? In a paper by Kovalski and Weller (2016), ...
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Why do we need to get rid of fever, whilst most of medical textbooks say it is a defense reaction of immune system [closed]

Why is paracetamol prescribed in cases of every fever when fever actually helps the body and is in fact induced by the immune system? Shouldn't it be better to let the immune system do its job?
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Relationship between Th1 and Th2 and their cross-regulation (+ understanding what cross-regulation means)

Apologies, biology is not my area of expertise but I do have an interest in it. I "know" that Th1 and Th2 cross-regulate but I'm not sure what that means... Could it mean that if one ...
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Covid-19 incubation period for vaccinated people

1The incubation period for covid-19 can be even something like 14 days. I guess this can be caused by having no specific immunity to this disease, so it takes some time for the immune system to react. ...
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Do covid vaccines increase the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement?

A QAnon video which takes Nobel Prize winner Luc Montagnier's suspect claims about covid vaccination and multiplies them beyond recognition states that mass vaccination will lead to mass ADE, and that ...
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Why do some vaccines cause flu-like symptoms? Why does this seem to be more severe in mRNA vaccines?

Flu like symptoms are noted as possible reactions on nearly every vaccine I've had since adolescence, but I've never actually seen these symptoms in myself or anyone, until now? I don't doubt that ...
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Is there any data on herbal supplements interfering with the efficacy of vaccination?

Here's an excerpt from a paper published in "Journal of Inflammation Research" by Dove Press for a popular and controversial herbal supplement from India: Coronil effectively inhibited the ...
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What is the historical or scientific basis for concern about COVID vaccines and pregnant women and their babies?

There's a lot of talk about whether COVID vaccines are safe for pregnant women and their fetuses. Current guidelines, while mentioning that there's little data, suggest that they are safe. However, I'...
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When speaking of vaccine efficacy (for COVID-19, or other), is immune response or efficacy really being measured? [duplicate]

I've been performing many web searches using combinations of the words "vaccine", "vaccination", "COVID-19", "coronavirus", "efficacy", and "...
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Does fasting improve your immune system even when you are already having some infection?

I am one of the self-motivated activists who run some groups to answer various misconceptions about science and try to fight against ignorance, pseudo-sciences and blind faiths. I was recently asked ...
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Covid-19 and Original Antigenic Sin

My understanding of original antigenic sin, which I admit is minimal, is that with some pathogens, your immune system gets too focused on one variant and thus is wholly unprepared to deal with a ...
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Does intermittent fasting induce autophagic cell death?

https://www.cancertherapyadvisor.com/home/tools/fact-sheets/intermittent-fasting-and-cancer/ In vitro and in vivo animal studies suggest that PF inactivates pro-proliferative pathways, while ...
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Why is it so difficult to develop vaccine for HIV?

I recently learnt that vaccine basically involves making the body ready by informing it the structure of spike protiens the virus has before hand. Why are we not able to do this for HIV. What's so ...
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Why is Antibody-Drug Conjugate regarded as Immunotherapy?

Many immunotherapy papers introduce Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs) as an emerging modality of immunotherapy, and the following is one example: Marin-Acevedo, Julian A et al. “Cancer immunotherapy ...
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How would the tuberculosis vaccine (BCG) decrease severity of COVID-19?

Two academic hospitals in The Netherlands (Nijmegen and Utrecht) just got approval to experiment with using a tuberculosis vaccine (BCG) to try to better protect hospital workers against coronavirus. ...
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Are many viruses actually good for us?... maybe even essential to our survival?

We know that a very large proportion of bacteria are essential to our good health. Every other day we see press release about the microbiome, and its multitude of health implications. Is there ...
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Are coronavirus-like spikes only seen in viruses?

Are there any natural proteins or cells (or anything) made by the human body with spikes like those of Covid-19? I know that there have been no serious side effects reported from the Covid-19 vaccine, ...

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