Questions tagged [epidemiology]

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UK - Sweden Covid-19 Comparison

I compared Covid-19 data on the 17th of October 2020, using this source: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html UK population = 66650000 Uk cases = 708297 UK deaths = 43669 66650000 / 708297 = 1 ...
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For how long can you wear a surgical mask? [closed]

I used to think that you can wear a mask for up to two hours, regardless of how many times you put it on and take it off. This guide says you can wear it for up to five times without any ...
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What should you put on your face if you want to protect both yourself and others?

Surgical masks protect other people but provide almost no protection for the wearer. Respirators (with valves) protect the wearer but don't protect those around you. What should you put on your face ...
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How effective are reused surgical masks?

Let's say I have used a surgical mask multiple times. And say I left it on a safe place, untouched, for three days which is the longest that viable SARS-CoV-2 has been found on different materials (...
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Are lockdowns good or bad? What is the scientific consensus, if any? [closed]

I thought doctors support lockdown measures and populist politicians oppose them, but then this "Barrington Declaration" cropped up and I don't know what to think now. Are lockdowns good or ...
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How old is the suppression/mitigation distinction in epidemiology?

The question is in the title, really. I have seen this distinction being made since March this year in regards to COVID-19 strategies, but how long have epidemiologists used this categorization? Is it ...
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How did WHO estimate the number of suspected worldwide COVID-19 cases?

A couple of days ago World Health Organization said that around 780 million people worldwide (or one in ten people worldwide) are suspected to have had COVID-19. (One in 10 worldwide may have had ...
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Is there a simple plot comparing covid lethality to flu as a function of age?

There is so much arguing over covid-19 vs. influenza. I would like to have some solid data in my hands. Can anyone point to a simple graph of the following? age vs. either CFR or IFR with one line for ...
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Why Pakistan can “flatten the curve” but India can't?

Comparing the Covid 19 trends between India and Pakistan: One can immediately notice the stark difference: Pakistan managed to "flatten the curve", and India is unable to control the ...
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Is it true that half of the COVID-19 patients, even seemingly without symptoms, obtain serious heart damage?

In this video, complex systems expert and physicist-turned-epidemiologist Yaneer Bar-Yam claims that according to recent findings, about half of the people that have been infected with COVID-19 will ...
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Why hasn't Russia's daily COVID-19 cases decreased as a result of its vaccine?

On August 11, Russian president Vladimir Putin announced a new vaccine for COVID-19. Since then Russia's COVID charts have looked like this: Evidently the vaccine has had a weak-to-no effect on both ...
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Level of vaccination for safe, large, international event [closed]

I've read as much as I've been able about COVID-19 all these months, but nothing comes to mind that talks about what an appropriate level of vaccination would be among international guests to a large ...
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Why is the lifetime prevalence of depression lower than the point prevalence? Figures from a study

From an article titled "Prevalence of Depression in the Community from 30 Countries between 1994 and 2014 (Lim et al., Scientific Reports, 2018)": A random-effects model meta-analysis that ...
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Is regenerative medicine promising for Ischemic stroke stroke patients? ; two points difference in the 47-point test

Many papers says, regenerative medicine using MSCs are promising for Ischemic stroke stroke patients. But in my layman's sense, various data don't seem promising. So, I want to hear the opinions of ...
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Are there independent studies on the efficacy of vaccines?

Is there a collection, meta analysis or review of significant, independent studies that prove the efficacy of vaccinations? I am in discussion with a anti-vaccinationist who claims that the efficacy ...
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Are there quantified risk factors for suicide in the U.S.?

The CDC has a page on suicide risk factors/protective factors: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/suicide/riskprotectivefactors.html Are there any sources that quantifies how much each of these ...
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Can cancer incidence rates, calculated from the general population, be used in primary care?

I calculated incidence rates (IR) for colorectal cancer using an age-period-cohort model. Is it useful for GPs to use such age, gender and anatomical sub-site specific IRs as a baseline risk, during ...
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COVID-19 and genomic sequencing

The most common explanation given for the large amount of COVID-19 infections in Victoria (Australia) is that it has been transmitted from inbound people in quarantine via security guards to their ...
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Epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-1

SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 seem very similar in terms of their nature and the way in which they entered the human population. SARS-CoV-1 appears to have been driven to extinction, but SARS-CoV-2, which ...
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What does it mean, that an epidemic curve is truncated at the level of diagnostic efficiency?

Recently I've heard in one interview with a Professor of Epidemiology, that in my country the epidemic curve of COVID-19 is not flattened (contrary to popular opinion), but rather is truncated at the ...
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Is there a standard projection (or ensemble of proyections) about whether a second wave of COVID-19 will occur?

Several countries and states are leaving or have partially left the lockdown and, with constraints, are recovering economical activity after getting hit by the covid-19 crisis. WHO has warned that ...
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Confirmed, recovered, deaths, meaning

I am wondering about the exact definition of a few terms that are being used in connection with the COVID-19, specifically in data sets. I am interested in the data at github specifically in the time ...
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Have clusters of Covid-19 cases been linked to supermarkets?

BBC news about a traditional Indian vegetable market (mandi) as spreading ground for Covid-19: Koyambedu: India's coronavirus cluster at a vegetable market [...] On 8 May, Tamil Nadu officials said 1,...
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What's the margin of error for the estimate on the percentage of people infected with latent tuberculosis?

According to a 2011 (news) article in Science More than a third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most people's immune system can keep the ...
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Why Dengue is considered an Epidemic and not a Pandemic? [closed]

According to Pandemic (and many other sources with similar definitions) a Pandemic is an epidemic of disease that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple continents or worldwide, ...
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Peer-reviewed IFR estimates for (seasonal) influenza?

It seems every journalist has his favorite expert that they can quote to whip up a CFR or IFR number for influenza. (For example, a question here [which no longer has this information] said that the ...
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How can Stockholm be close to herd immunity without having overwhelmed the healthcare system?

According to several sources, models estimate 20% of people in Stockholm are already immune to COVID-19 (2014-04-22). However, German virologists estimate (2020-04-19) that to reach herd immunity in ...
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Is there research on the relative effectiveness of different social distancing measures?

Toward the end of the widely read Medium article The Hammer and the Dance, the author talks about "the ROI [return on investment] of social distancing". He provides a chart and a table showing the ...
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Will everyone get the COVID-19?

There is a Ben Shapiro tweet that says: For a variety of reasons, many Americans seem to think that "flattening the curve" means that fewer Americans will get covid-19 total. This is inaccurate....
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How is the duration of an epidemic defined?

I've come across papers that plot the duration of an epidemic using a parameterized model, and papers that calculate the expectation of the duration. But I'm looking for how the duration is defined. ...
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Has there been any research into how people are being infected during hardcore lockdowns?

Several countries around the world have instituted extremely harsh lockdowns: France, Spain, Italy, New Zealand, Argentina. However for some reason all of those countries keep getting new infections 2+...
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Are there any epidemiological or laboratory studies on the effectiveness of variolation?

Variolation has been brought up in some circles nowadays as a proposal to deal with the Covid-19 crisis (sometimes by invoking the glorious/revolutionary American past). Looking at the aforementioned ...
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How many people died in the USA on average per day including up to 2019? [closed]

On average, how many people die every day in the USA? The statistics for 2019 and before.
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What are the epidemiological basis (bases) of ceasing containment measures once an outbreak becomes an epidemic/pandemic?

A previous question on SE has asked about whether testing, a part of the strategy of containment, can help reduce transmission enough such that it reduces the need for aspects of mitigation (Could ...
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Is there any systematic evidence whether (US style) parks lead to the spread of respiratory illnesses?

New York City apparently took the somewhat controversial decision to keep its parks open during this Covid-19 outbreak, although quite a few in-door recreational facilities were closed, as were ...
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How representative are the COVID-19 quarantine deadlines to the public health impact?

I don't know if this is the right place to ask this question. I feel like a lot of people are asking a very similar question, and all we have are deadlines for quarantines (as of writing this question,...
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Why did COVID-19 spread so much faster than H1N1/09 in China?

Despite China's success in controlling the COVID-19 outbreak insofar, a March 31 Science paper that analyzes the response has this intriguing (and alarming) observation The dispersal of COVID-19 ...
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Where can I find the total number of people living with or beyond cancer for the UK and globally, as up to date as possible (<2020)?

I'm trying to work out the total prevalence of cancer (all types) in the UK and globally, defined as someone who is alive and has had a cancer diagnosis at some point in their lives. I'm really ...
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What are South Korea and Japan doing right about COVID-19?

This chart shows South Korea and Japan significantly outperforming the rest of the world in preventing spread of COVID-19. My understanding is that everyone there is wearing surgical masks in public ...
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Was it a lab accident or something else that re-released H1N1 in 1977?

In the highly cited 2006 review of Taubenberger and Morens it is mentioned that: The impact of this pandemic was not limited to 1918–1919. All influenza A pandemics since that time, and indeed ...
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Efficiency of age-dependent and geographical quarantines?

Most western countries let young people transmit the virus slowly over a period of 1-2 years while keeping the economy in lockdown and letting the old and frail people shop and work together. That ...
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Effect of Covid-19 lockdowns on other diseases? [closed]

So I am sitting here at home in Covid-19 lock down. It got me wondering if there any prior evidence of the effects of lockdowns on the spread of others diseases? Or if there there are any solid ...
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What is the main way COVID-19 spreads?

Reading numerous news articles about COVID-19, I got confused as to what is its main transmission route. In particular, I am confused as to whether it is direct landing of respiratory droplets in ...
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What's the evidence for “flattening the curve” by social distancing measures in the context of contagious respiratory diseases?

This is more of Skeptics-style question, but since I only know of people on Stack Exchange challenging this (so it would not be a "notable claim" for Skeptics)... I'm asking here. For ...
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Steps to ensure incoming foods from many grocery bags do not carry COVID-19 virus into the Refrigerator, Kitchen, Home?

PPS: If this is more Biology or LifeHacks then please feel to move it there. But this is a key VIRUS VECTOR that will come indoors and we are not all competent to "sanitize" the variety of items. ...
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Is there an inflection point in Coronavirus outbreaks where you can't contain the epidemy anymore?

So far only a few countries have been able to reduce through policies the number of people infected in their countries after being exposed to thousands of infected, viz. China (including Taiwan, Hong ...
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Have experts considered the option of Controlled & Isolated Covid-19 Exposure for very low-risk groups? [duplicate]

I have not seen this as an option in the media and wondered if this has been considered and rejected. Unless the virus has shown to be mutating frequently, this option would allow low-risk groups to ...
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Confusing COVID article - Why would keeping the doubling time above the incubation period flatten the curve?

I stumbled upon this boiled down news article which makes the statement that if we get the doubling time for coronavirus cases above the incubation period (5.8 days), we will be able to effectively "...
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Did SARS-CoV-2 spread into Japan, USA, Taiwan, and other countries from single super spreaders?

What's the data to inform us how this infection spread so quickly? It seems that the virus first appeared in around November 2019 in China and an infected person visited the seafood market in Huanan, ...
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Is the length of an epidemic linked to the strictness of the confinement?

From my understanding the measures to confine the population are designed not to protect it from getting infected but to prevent the hospitals to be overflown by too many simultaneous cases. In other ...