Questions tagged [vaccination]

treat with a vaccine to produce immunity against a disease; inoculation.

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Is it possible for a specific brand of a vaccine (for Leptospirosis in dogs) to cause hepatic side effects?

I am a veterinarian in Europe and I am facing an unusual case. Within the last month, I have seen two different young dogs (3 years and 4 years old) to whom I administered a tetravalent vaccine for ...
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Is PCV13 effective if the suspension is not shaken prior to administration?

PCV13, like other vaccines which are suspensions, should be shaken vigorously to obtain a homogenous, white suspension in the vaccine container immediately prior to use. If this is not done and the ...
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Why aren't other vaccines combined (like the MMR)?

From Public Health England: With single vaccines, children would need 6 separate injections: 3 primary doses - 1 measles, 1 mumps, 1 rubella 3 pre-school boosters Each injection ...
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Varicella vaccine UK, benefits vs risk

first question on medicine stackexchange so apologies if formatting isn't right. My specific questions are If vaccinated <5 years old, is the vaccine still likely to be protective at childbearing ...
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In what situations can vaccination lead to autism-like symptoms?

Autism Expert: Case Is "Rare" A pediatrician who serves on a childhood vaccine advisory committee for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services sees the case differently. "To say ...
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How can a school be getting an epidemic of whooping cough if most of the students are vaccinated?

Apparently a private school is experiencing an outbreak of whooping cough. However, the article said that only 18 of the students in the school (out of 1500 or so) were unvaccinated, yet already 30 ...
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What percent of people in the United States are vaccinated against measles?

I am researching measles vaccination rates. Almost every source I have found focuses on immunization coverage among children (of various ages). However, I am curious what the overall population ...
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Father gets chickenpox, but doesn't infect his two children. How is this possible?

My brother in law got chickenpox, yet somehow he didn't infect my two nephews, even though they are living together. According to wikipedia, varicella has an infection rate of 90%: Varicella is ...
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Does an hpv vaccination still make sense after age 26?

The US CDC says that an HPV vaccination is recommended up to the age of 26. If you are older than that and not infected yet, why shouldn't it make sense to get vaccinated then?
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Is there scientific evidence that spacing out vaccines have any positive effects?

There are parents and doctors that agree to spread out their kids' shots. Supposedly it's easier on the baby (some babies experience fever or other ill reactions to vaccination). But I had a thought ...
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What are the limits on the amount of pathogens that a body can be immune to at any given time?

Before the seasonal flu vaccine was recommended for all healthy adults, people in developed countries might get vaccinated against on the order of 10 different pathogens and develop immunity for some ...
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Vaccination boosters - is their precise timing important?

Booster vaccines are typically booked exactly 4 weeks after the prime dose, is it known how important this specific time window is? How is vaccine efficacy changed if boosters are given later than ...
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Would it possible for me to get tested for past viral infection after vaccination?

I may or may not have a viral infection in the past and then I took vaccination for it. Would it possible for me to get tested for past viral infection? For example HPV virus using IGG test.
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Why is there no toxoplasmosis vaccine?

I assume there is some misunderstanding on my part about the vaccine-creation-process and which factors play a role in it. Below is my current understanding. About toxoplasmosis: Toxoplasmosis is a ...
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Why are dogs only vaccinated once for rabies, while humans need follow-up treatment after being bitten, even with a previous vaccination?

As stated in the title, why are dogs only vaccinated pre-exposure for rabies, while humans need follow-up treatment after being bitten, even with a pre-exposure vaccination? What is causing the ...
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Does vaccination weaken the immune system ? Studies?

A friend recognizes value in vaccinating in general - against major diseases - but with a caveat that they are opposed to the flu vaccine specifically. They claim that vaccines weaken the immune ...
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Is it known how often unvaccinated children are contagious with symptom free diseases?

I was looking at the CDC Vaccine Schedule for children, and it says that many of the things kids are vaccinated for may show no symptoms. Do any of those diseases –– mainly haemophilus influenzae, ...
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Drinking alcohol after tick-borne encephalitis vaccine

A friend of mine got a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) shot yesterday, and the doctor said he mustn't drink alcohol for 3 days after getting the shot. Unfortunately, my friend forgot about that for a ...
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Why do some vaccines require periodical shot updates while others don't?

I was wondering, what is the reason some vaccines provide a lifelong immunity against a disease while others require periodical shots to keep one immunised against a disease.
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What are the differences of the US vaccine schedule compared to other countries?

If the current US vaccine schedule is compared to the vaccine schedule of other large developed countries, what are the most significant differences in the US schedule vs their schedules?
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Wouldn't it be optimal for a human to get all the vaccinations that exist?

Question actually says it all. Since a vaccine can make you immune to a disease/infection X, shouldn't we just get all the available ones? Is there a risk with getting lots of vaccines as an adult? ...
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Why are some viruses harder to make vaccines for?

A number of common viral disease agents have vaccines produced for them: Hepatitis B, Diphtheria, Influenza (flu), Varicella (chicken pox), Poliovirus (polio), and many more. But many very serious or ...
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Why is the Rotavirus vaccine can be given only until the age of 8 months and 0 days?

Any idea why there is such a strict age limit for this vaccine? Reference
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Is it dangerous for an old person to take pneumococcal vaccine (for pneumonia) twice within 2 years?

I have an old relative in her 70s who took some vaccination jabs 2 years ago. She has no idea what jab it was due to her aging mind. I intend to bring her to take pneumococcal vaccine to protect ...
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Is the 2017-2018 flu vaccine a “good match” for circulating influenza viruses?

I've seen news stories (such as this one) claiming that the 2017-2018 flu vaccine is not a "good match" to circulating influenza viruses. However, the CDC states: Two hundred sixty-two influenza A(...
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How is the total calculated for influenza vaccination coverage calculated?

I found these data concerning influenza vaccination coverage in Italy. I don't understand how the total is calculated. It is not a simple media. For example, for the season 2016-2017 the data are as ...
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Should I get my kids have pre-exposure rabies vaccination due to our cat

I live in Texas, USA. There is plenty of wildlife around here, and thus considerable records of rabies incidents transmitted by them. We have a cat less than a year old, and had 1st rabies vaccination....
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Is it advisable for a healthy male in his early 40s to take the influenza vaccine?

Influenza vaccines do not have satisfactory effective rates of preventing flu. Flu vaccination reduces the risk of flu illness by between 40% and 60% among the overall population during seasons when ...
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Details for pre exposure prophylaxis for rabies

I will now be in contact with many unvaccinated dogs. I will have to take the pre exposure course. Please tell me how frequently it is taken. Will I require boosters if a dog bites me after I have ...
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Is it true that measles vaccine lead to poor sexual potency for men?

Infectiologist at local medical clinic told me that vaccination against measles is not recommended for men because it harms sexual potency. She said though that it is OK to vaccinate children against ...
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what is protection rate difference between cellular pentavac and acellular pentamaxim vaccination?

I got first 2 doses of vaccination of cellular DPT vaccine vaccine from government hospital, both caused intense irritability and fever to about 103 degree to my 3 month kid. A different doctor of ...
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Does efficacy of the flu vaccine change if received while sick with the common-cold?

If one’s immune system was dealing with fighting any common-cold virus infection, does that in any way change the efficacy of the flu vaccine received at that time? I don't know how efficient the ...
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Why are two influenza vaccinations required for people under a certain age?

According to the CDC, people under 8 who have never had the flu vaccine or flu should get 2 doses at least 28 days apart. The reason given is that "the first dose 'primes' the immune system," but as ...
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References for comprehensive guideline for individualized vaccination schedules

For the most developed countries there exists official vaccination schedules which result from an in depth analysis of the risk-benefit ratio for the general population. I.e. it is (or should be) the ...
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What shots are not okay for someone with egg allergies?

I have heard that flu shots generally are manufactured in eggs or chicken embryos, and so there can be an issue for people who are allergic to eggs. What other shots should people allergic to eggs ...
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can a person get infected by Hepatitis B while taking Hepatitis B vaccine

can a person get infected by Hepatitis B while taking Hepatitis B vaccine if the needle is infected with Hepatitis B virus.
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Vaccines and autoimmunity concerns

Medical papers/books exist linking vaccines to autoimmunity yet I am not able to decide whether they should be considered sound and peer reviewed scientific studies or not. Some examples are: "rare ...
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How does the schedule for a vaccination in multiple injections work?

My doctor advised me to get vaccinated against the Japanese encephalitis before a trip to Cambodia. He recommended three injections in order to get protected for 10 years: a first injection, a second ...
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Is a general vaccine against getting a cold possible?

While the common cold is a broad disease, is it possible to get vaccinated? Is it possible at least in some future, or is it even in theory not possible?
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Minor feral cat scratch that bled 6 days ago. Rabies possibility?

I feed a feral cat and her litter of 4 5-week old kittens in my backyard. I got a small scratch on my hand which bled for a few minutes and heard it hiss. That's when the mom came and proceeded to ...
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Do I need to get re-immunized for immunities received prior to contracting measles?

One study has suggested that measles can lead to "immune memory loss", meaning immunities gained prior to measles infection can be lost. I had measles at age six. According to the (current) CDC ...
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Travelling to country with endemic measels - Do I need MMR shot renewed?

I was born in 1993, received my first MMR vaccine in 1994 and the booster in 1997. I'm about to travel to a country where vaccination rates are lower, and as a result, measels outbreaks still happen ...
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Why do we need a rabies vaccine after exposure?

So I understand the need for rabies vaccination "before" exposure since the vaccine basically prepares the immune system, so that in the future should the same intruder enter the body again, the ...
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Should everyone take an annula flu vaccine?

Flu is a disease of all ages, with worst complications and risk of death in babies and the elderly, but people of all ages can get very sick or be hospitalized.
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Is the second vaccine dose necessary if seroconversion occurred after the first dose?

My question is applicable to all multi-dose vaccines with vaccination intervals of several weeks, though the specific case that triggered my question was the chickenpox vaccine Varilrix/GSK. My ...
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Rabies vaccination, two 3rds of the required course

As some of you may be aware, the Rabies vaccination requires a set of 3 doses over a period of 1 month. I have "maybe" had 2 of those 3 jabs. The nurse can see on my records that 2 doses have been ...
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Is it okay to miss one of vaccine (Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) for infants?

My local health center missed Pneumococcal conjugate(PCV) for my kid scheduled (as per the plan is given in the booklet) at two months age. Then they missed the same at four months age again due to ...
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Are influenza vaccinations the same worldwide?

Are influenza vaccinations a.k.a. flu shots the same worldwide? For example, if the patient gets a flu shot in South Korea in October, then spends the winter in the United States, would the protection ...
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How often are people vaccinated in the unlikely event of biological-germ-warfare (ex: anthrax and ricin)?

How often are people vaccinated in the unlikely event of biological-germ-warfare (Example: anthrax and ricin)? A few years ago, a few letters laced with anthrax and ricin were sent via mail to ...
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Why does a tense arm worsen flu shot soreness?

Multiple nurses have told me that the key to a pain-free flu shot is to completely relax your arm. How would you explain what's going on at the cellular level when a tense muscle receives a shot and ...