Questions tagged [vaccination]

Use this tag for questions related to the development, administration, or monitoring of a treatment intended to produce immunity against a communicable disease.

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Rationale for tuberculosis vaccines?

I don't understand the rationale behind tuberculosis vaccines. As I understand tuberculosis is a chronic disease that takes weeks to develop. Obviously if a person only requires 10 days to develop an ...
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2 votes
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Why are some vaccines 100% effective while others aren’t?

Why are some vaccines, like for rabies, 100% effective at treating someone while others, like the covid 19 vaccine, isn’t. Disclaimer: not a dumb vaccine skeptic or anything just genuinely curious.
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Can someone point me to a good, up-to-date review article on the effectiveness of vaccines against the omicron variant of the coronavirus?

I would like to learn about the effectiveness of vaccines against the omicron variant of the coronavirus. I believe a review article from a scientific journal would have the best information. I ...
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23 votes
1 answer
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Why is the rate of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus disease booming?

The wikipedia entry on polio vaccines has the 1st graph below, showing that the rate of vaccine derived polio has increased massively over the last few years, with the rate of 1089 cases in 2020 ...
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How long will rabies viruses remain alive in human body after an infected person receive the full series of vaccinations and treatment? [closed]

Will the rabies viruses eventually be exterminated from an infected individual after the full vaccination/treatment series? Otherwise will it remain in the human body forever despite vaccination?
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Effectiveness of COVID-19 "booster" (typically the third shot) when being administered after a long time following the initial two doses

In layman's terms, "booster" seems to mean to enhance upon the initial vaccination dose(s). This article suggests administering it after about six months. I am considering having the third ...
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How well does COVID vaccination protect against brain damage from COVID?

I have read that even mild infections with the Corona virus causes significant brain damage in a large number of cases: Could mild COVID symptoms lead to brain damage? Therefore, it is natural to ask ...
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7 votes
2 answers
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Did covid vaccine studies use an active placebo (with side effects)?

I know that the studies done by Pfizer, et al, used standard methods with a placebo control group. If you read about blinded experiments here, it mentions: A common cause for unblinding is the ...
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How soon after the second Sinopharm jab can you safely get a Pfizer booster jab?

Imagine someone was in a hurry to get high immunity (the Sinopharm jabs are said to be at best only moderately effective) , or there was a free Pfizer booster jab available for a limited time. What is ...
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The number of new cases of COVID

I have noticed that the number of new Covid cases in the United States is running roughly 100,000 per day and increasing. What percentage of those new cases are people that are fully vaccinated? In an ...
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What is the mechanism through which TLR 7/8 agonist is useful as an adjuvant in an inactivated vaccine?

My layman understanding is that a Toll like receptor (TLR) is an entity that detects foreign substances in the body and creates an alert about them and an appropriate response ensues. A TLR 7 and 8 ...
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2 votes
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Which is the best COVID-19 booster dose for a patient in their forties?

The Iranian government now recommends booster doses for those 40 years old or older. Most people in Iran were vaccinated with Sinopharm. For a booster, they can choose between Sinopharm, Astrazenk, ...
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Where is the data for Covid-19 vaccine safety in medium term and/or for people with chronic health conditions?

I have several middle-aged relatives which are... let's say postponing their vaccination due to fears of their safety. Now, I know there are some people who will never be convinced by anything, ...
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For how long does the legal requirement to report deaths after COVID-19 vaccination to VAERS last?

The US Health and Human Services VAERS FAQ for COVID-19 says (emphasis in original): What adverse events should healthcare providers report to VAERS after COVID-19 vaccination? [...] Healthcare ...
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CDC - Severity of Disease Among Adults Hospitalized - Covid

The cdc published Severity of Disease Among Adults Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 Before and During the Period of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) Predominance — COVID-NET, 14 States, ...
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Will the COVID-19 virus ever stop mutating into new variants? [closed]

I am curious to know if it has been discussed within the medical community as to whether the COVID-19 virus will ever stop mutating into new variants, and if it has been discussed, what is the ...
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Why do some vaccines have only a short protection span?

Why does the rabies vaccine have only a limited longevity of around 2 years (source: immunize.org), while the hepatitis b vaccine has a longevity of more than 25 years (source: CDC)? In addition, if ...
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How many people end up needing medical attention during the 15 minute window after receiving the Pfizer vaccine?

Everyone receiving the COVID vaccines is asked to wait for 15 minutes in case they have a bad reaction to the shot. Given that we've now had hundreds of millions of Pfizer vaccine shots injected ...
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Moderna vs Pfizer booster

What published studies exist to support the choice of Moderna or Pfizer booster? The only study I could very quickly find is below. The study seems a bit preliminary, exactly as it says on the tin. I ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
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Are vaccines much more deadly than people (and scientists) think?

In the response to the question Are Covid-19 vaccines much more deadly than people (and scientists) think? is mentioned that "Docs are instructed not to report deaths after a flu vaccine that are ...
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2 votes
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Why is aspiration not commonly used for IM vaccine administration in the U.S.?

The CDC says it is "not necessary". I asked my local pharmacy and they will not do it even upon request and I am OK with that. But I have a question. By accident I happened to see a video ...
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Does this Covid-19 vaccine study suggests a 1 to 718 rate of adverse effects?

As I have not much skill in reading medical research, I wanted to verify my calculation of this research results. A big peer-reviewed research titled Safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine in a ...
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Are Covid-19 vaccines much more deadly than people (and scientists) think?

The other day I read this chart on an Italian newspaper article I looked for the source, and I found only this tweet: https://twitter.com/Drs4CovidEthics/status/1432193260949172230 from Doctors for ...
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Why did J&J go for one dose?

The latest news from the US is that the CDC & FDA recommend a booster shot after only two months following the "single dose" J&J vaccine. Given the Fauci comment that J&J "...
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Vaccine death efficacy calculation and how it works

I am no medical expert, am just curious how vaccines work in general, especially in preventing severe illness and deaths. I have read articles, seen videos on youtube, and seen how efficacy is ...
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How do the viral loads of vaccinated and unvaccinated asymptomatic, and symptomatic individuals differ for COVID-19?

I'm searching for information regarding the above question, but I seem to keep finding conflicting information. Some articles say that asymptomatic people have higher viral loads than symptomatic ...
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Is booster dose needed for chinese vaccines

I can't seem to easily find such information and would greatly appreciate some help. Does anyone have information if booster (third) dose is required or recommended for Chinese Covid vaccine sinopharm?...
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What are the concrete odds of myocarditis in using Modena vs Pfizer vaccine, according to the Nordic agencies' data/studies?

It's been reported that some Nordic countries have suspended the Moderna vaccine from younger age groups, due to an increased incidence of myocarditis, seemingly relative to Pfizer. However, even ...
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What data supports the safety of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines for women of childbearing age?

I am looking for the actual data (ie, numbers) supporting the widespread consensus regarding the safety of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines with regards to fertility, pregnancy, and childbirth, as stated ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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If person got covid vaccine some time ago, should he get flu vaccine?

Say person got covid vaccine several months ago (say one of Chinese vaccines), is it safe to get flu vaccine? Best info I found was from CDC While limited data exist on giving COVID-19 vaccines with ...
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Is there a relationship between vaccine openness and education levels?

I am looking for a reference about the link between vaccine openness and education levels beyond COVID-19. I found a paper Robertson 2021 that mentioned the link between vaccine openness and education ...
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How do we know that mrna-hijacked cells with spike proteins are not harmful to the body?

If I understand mRNA COVID vaccines correctly, they contain some RNA that is inserted into a cell, which then is instructed to produce the spike protein, which is typical for COVID-19 viruses. Once ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
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Risks to quick vaccine development?

I've heard that the longer a virus is in a population the less deadly it becomes. Something about deadliness being selected out from generation to generation. Had me thinking that with the speed of ...
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1 vote
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Which countries recommend Covid vaccine for pregnant women?

It is still controversial if pregnant women should generally be vaccinated against Covid. As far as I understood, the US-american and English authorities recommend vaccination, while the Germans do ...
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Is there UK data on the reduction in vaccine effectiveness for people who were vaccinated 5+ months ago?

Leaving aside the completely unvaccinated sections of the population (in themselves a huge problem), preliminary data from Israel and the US (in selected cohorts Mayo, CDC--on "frontline" ...
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Using Pfizer as a booster dose if someone was vaccinated with Sinopharm: what is good practice? [closed]

I am curious if there is established practice of using Pfizer as a booster dose if a person was vaccinated with Sinopharm. One example I think is here which says it is possible https://www....
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Is there a more recent official presentation (than Aug 11) on the Israel's Covid-19 vaccine effectiveness, particularly on the booster shot?

If found two-three previous ones (July, 2nd/longer variant, August 11), but Reuters claims on Aug 22 there's one about the booster effectiveness, and it's almost certainly not one of those three I ...
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what is risk of breakthrough infection with pfizer and delta?

There is varying information on this topic, does anybody know is there is any consensus on the rate of breakthrough infections with delta and pfizer vaccine? https://www.cnbc.com/2021/07/23/delta-...
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What is the recommended interval for HPV vaccines such as Gardasil 9 for women and men up to age 45?

In October 2018, the US Food and Drug Administration announced it had expanded the approved age for the HPV vaccine up to age 45 for women and men. In June 2019, a key advisory committee for the US ...
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What are the risks associated with imidazoquinoline adjuvant (used in one Covid-19 vaccine) related to development of autoimmune diseases?

Covaxin is an inactivated virus-based COVID-19 vaccine developed by Bharat Biotech. Recently, the Brazilian health regulator Anvisa raised few concerns regarding Covaxin, one of which was- use of a ...
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1 vote
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What is the evidence for the need for rabies boosters?

Rabies prophylaxis protocols require both vaccine booster shots and multiple post-exposure booster shots, in addition to the initial "immunization". What is the evidence for the need for ...
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Mix-&-Match of 3 COVID-19 Vaccines?

Now that getting the third shot of COVID-19 vaccine is allowed, which one of the following order of 3 vaccines will lead to better protection and more robust immune system response against Covid-19 ...
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What does the term "person vaccinated-days" mean

A number of papers relating to COVID-19 Vaccination refer to the occurrence of thrombotic events. Rates of occurrence are usually expressed in the form of "cases of thrombotic events per million ...
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Vaccine efficacy to get FDA approval

What is the required efficacy level for a COVID-19 vaccine to get FDA approval? I heard the numbers 50% and 60% - but can not find any document which would explicitly say so. My concern is that two ...
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Immunoglobulin E (IgE) level and covid vaccine

I am finding hard to find information if a person has say higher than average level of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is it safe to do covid vaccine?
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What's the term for fainting when you get a needle without apprehension?

So I will often faint when I get a needle, both for vaccinations and blood tests. This is not because I have any apprehension about the needle. If I lie down for the needle rather than sitting it has ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How does getting 2 or 3 shots of the Pfizer or Moderna COVID vaccine compare against 1 shot Johnson & Johnson's vaccine + 1 shot of Pfizer or Moderna?

I wonder how does getting 2 or 3 shots of the Pfizer or Moderna COVID vaccine compare against 1 shot Johnson & Johnson's vaccine + 1 or 2 shots of Pfizer or Moderna, in terms of COVID-19 ...
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Does the Pfizer vaccine efficacy wane faster than Moderna's?

Mothership.sg ran this headline: Moderna's Covid-19 shot 93% effective, 6 months after 2nd dose However, Pfizer reported that their shot efficacy would reduce to around 84 per cent over the same time ...
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How would a global vaccination campaign stop COVID-19, rather than favor new mutation?

According to this report by Public Health England (p.35): whilst vaccination may reduce an individual’s overall risk of becoming infected, once they are infected there is limited difference in viral ...
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COVID vaccines and autoimmune conditions

According to the CDC there are only two contraindications to receiving the COVID vaccine: Severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) after a previous dose or to a component of the COVID-19 vaccine ...
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