Questions tagged [vaccination]

treat with a vaccine to produce immunity against a disease; inoculation.

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What percentage of vaccines are deemed unsafe at which stage in the testing?

What percentage of vaccines are deemed unsafe at what stage of the testing? Is it common that vaccines reach stage 2 for example and are deemed unsafe there? What about vaccines making it to stage 3? ...
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Does being vaccinated prevent transmission of disease if you catch it

Each year, many people get the flu vaccine (and I'm sure there are many more other than flu). Even if you get this vaccine, and from what I've understood, you can still catch the same strain of flu as ...
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Can't this be done as a Covid 19 vaccine? [closed]

Can't we induce some dead Covid 19 cells into a person's body, so that the body may learn how to deal with such cells, if, incase the body got infected with Covid at some later point of time? As far ...
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Necessity of flu shots under pandemic living conditions [closed]

Is the following logic valid? Getting an influenza vaccine is less necessary this season, if one is going to live under conditions (mask-wearing, drastically reduced contacts with others etc) designed ...
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RNA vaccination and autoimmune reactions

to my knowledge we do not have any robust experience with RNA vaccination. Most likely this will change in the near future as RNA vaccines against COVID are in the pipline. The rational behind this ...
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What does “pause” mean in Covid19 Vaccine Clinical Trials?

Johnson and Johnson as well as Astra Zeneca recently announced that they were going to "pause" in their respective clinical trials for a Covid19 vaccine. What exactly are they "pausing&...
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Is it assumed that COVID-19 vaccine will prevent you from infecting others?

My question is quite short. I tried to find an answer anywhere, but for some reason nobody asked it before. There are many countries which are developing vaccines from COVID-19. The good vaccine will ...
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How come moderna vaccine can last at much more much higher temperature than Pfizer's vaccine?

I've read recently that Moderna's vaccine for covid-19 can last at around 60 degree more than Pfizer's. My question is why, given that they both use the same technique? references: https://...
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Why COVID-19 “immunogenicity may be 70%”?

The USA CDC director Dr. Robert Redfield was recently quoted in the media as saying: "I might even go so far as to say that this face mask is more guaranteed to protect me against Covid than ...
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COVID19 Vaccine Clinical Trials

I am interested in learning about the details of the Phase 3 clinical trial designs for the Moderna, Pfizer/Biotech, and AstraZeneca/Oxford vaccines. I expect that the trial designs would be published ...
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What is the statistical power required for COVID-19 vaccine trials?

Clinical research selects the number of subjects under treatment based on desired statistical power (i.e. the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the null is in effect false, given a ...
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Flu vaccine paradox [closed]

Here are two facts that one clearly admit and and almost read everywhere: Fact 1) it needs many years to elaborate a vaccine (from research, creation, testing and approval) Fact 2) new vaccine for ...
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Why hasn't Russia's daily COVID-19 cases decreased as a result of its vaccine?

On August 11, Russian president Vladimir Putin announced a new vaccine for COVID-19. Since then Russia's COVID charts have looked like this: Evidently the vaccine has had a weak-to-no effect on both ...
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Why do we have vaccines against some diseases and not the others? [closed]

There's a vaccine against pneumococcus (common cause of pneumonia) but there's no vaccine against treponema pallidum (cause of syphilis). Both are bacteria (although different kinds of bacteria). What'...
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How long do trials for “cancer vaccines” usually take?

2 years ago we've heard about a "cancer vaccine" be ready to be tested in humans. Cancer vaccine trial . By that time a person I know (with no experience whatsoever in Medicine) told me he &...
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Is inoculation against covid-19 an option?

Covid-19 can cause serious illness or death, and it can take survivors a very long time to recover, and even then it is unsure if recovery will be complete. The policies put in place to curb the ...
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Can this method of immunization for horses serve as a COVID-19 vaccine for humans?

A group of scientist developed Equine polyclonal antibodies (EpAbs) obtained after immunization of horses with the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 viral Spike glycoprotein. https://ri....
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How to measure how long does a vaccine last?

Recently I read someone arguing against pharmaceuticals saying COVID 19 vaccine immunity would last around a year. His argument was that how do they know that it's good for a year if a year has not ...
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Are there independent studies on the efficacy of vaccines?

Is there a collection, meta analysis or review of significant, independent studies that prove the efficacy of vaccinations? I am in discussion with a anti-vaccinationist who claims that the efficacy ...
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Could I infect someone else with a disease if I have already received a vaccine for said disease?

I was recently having a conversation with someone I am very close to in which there was some confusion on how a disease (specially a virus) could be passed from person A to person B, even if person A ...
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Confirming Individual Vaccination Efficacy

Approved / mass vaccines are not 100% effective all the time. Trials are stochastic in nature and experiments are designed to avoid bias. Assume for this question that the vaccine has passed ...
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In a phase 3 vaccine trial how many persons actually receive the trial vaccine?

Perhaps I am making an incorrect assumption, but when it is reported that 30,000 participants are being inoculated, I take that to mean that about 15,000 are getting the vaccine and about 15,000 are ...
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Can SARS-CoV-2 possibly overcome herd immunity without mutation in densely populated countries and places?

Can the coronavirus that causes covid-19 possibly overcome herd immunity without mutation using immune individuals as hubs till it reaches vulnerable individuals in very densely populated countries ...
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Could a COVID-19 vaccine provide better or longer immunity than actual infection?

Could a COVID-19 (or other coronavirus) vaccine possibly provide better or longer immunity than an actual infection? If yes, how does it work? If no, should an antibody test precede vaccination? I did ...
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Do participants of the COVID-19 vaccine trials get exposed to the virus?

It might be obvious to many in the medical field, but it had me wondering when reading about the new trials for the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine that is currently being tested on a group of people. When ...
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Do we need vaccines for different things after our childhood?

Recently, as the news about COVID vaccine is everywhere, I'm seeing some similar stuff on many sites like "we will need yearly vaccine like other vaccines", "we would need covid vaccine ...
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Bad but better-than-nothing vaccine

The first vaccines for viral diseases, such as smallpox, were a variety of live, attenuated or dead virus particles. They did not use adjuvants and they were not safe - but, the chance of ...
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Are there vaccines which present a risk by being re-taken too early?

A friend of mine lost the vaccination information for one of his children (a 15 yo boy) and has doubts about the date for the next shot against tetanus (which in France comes together with the ones ...
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Can a cat that survived 10 day quarantine have infected person with rabies

Twelve days ago I was bitten by a cat. I live in an officially rabies free country so no vaccine was given nor is there any tracking in place. I saw a doctor he simply said it was not necessary. Still ...
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Is it better to diversify across multiple vaccines?

It is certainly good to study multiple coronavirus vaccines at this point, but that is not what I mean by this question. What I mean is: suppose a vaccine appears safe and effective from trials, is ...
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What is the long-term COVID-19 outlook?

Finding a cure for the common cold has long been an unattainable holy grail of medicine. The common cold is caused by over 200 different strains of viruses (Common cold - Wikipedia). The viruses ...
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Are there diseases for which infection does not grant lasting immunity but a vaccine does?

There has been a lot of discussion about whether people who have COVID-19 and recover will have long-lasting immunity. At the same time, work is underway to create a vaccine for this disease. But if ...
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Does obesity predispose to less effective vaccine response in general?

From a (2019) review on host susceptibility to influenza A virus (IAV): Obesity was identified as a risk factor for IAV infection over a decade ago and confirmed during the swine flu pandemic [30, 31]...
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Why will there be vaccines first before a cure for COVID-19?

I found this link on the internet: 70 vaccines are getting ready for coronavirus: 3 very promising Why is it that there will be vaccines before a cure? Shouldn't it be the other way around? What is ...
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Why COVID-19 vaccine defies the 12-18 month estimation? [closed]

Most of us are expecting a COVID-19 within 12-18 months. But how come in the past week, I find multiple articles and news reports suggesting the possibility of a vaccine in the fall. While this is ...
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A cheap and easy inactivated vaccine for COVID-19

Suppose a person with COVID-19 coughs into a bag. Let the bag sit in the sun for, say, 72 hours -- so as to make the virus inactive. Could a healthy person breathe in the inactivated virus from the ...
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Can we imply from this recent report that COVID-19 strain A might inoculate against strains B and C?

Apparently 3 strains were identified and the first strain seemed to protect from the more dangerous second and third strains: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsCo8w67FhE https://www.medrxiv.org/...
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Are there any epidemiological or laboratory studies on the effectiveness of variolation?

Variolation has been brought up in some circles nowadays as a proposal to deal with the Covid-19 crisis (sometimes by invoking the glorious/revolutionary American past). Looking at the aforementioned ...
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Why is the immune response to RSV so short lived (and what else makes a vaccine for RSV difficult)?

From a Bio SE answer that doesn't delve into details on this (because it was a broad question on all "colds") one can't help but notice that RSV has the shortest antibody persistence listed in that ...
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Why is developing a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine expected to take longer than developing the 1957 flu vaccine?

Maurice Hillman developed a vaccine for the 1957 flu pandemic that was ready within five months (1). One commonly hears that it will take at least 12-18 months in total to deploy a vaccine against ...
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Have any regulatory agencies announced they would allow live Covid-19 human challenges (for vaccine testing purposes)?

It's been mentioned to me in the discussion on another question that the following proposal has been advanced (in a medical journal): Controlled human challenge trials of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ...
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Was there ever a vaccine candidate that showed negative side effects many months or years after the patient was injected?

The current prognosis for a COVID-19 vaccine to become available is "12-18 months" and a big part of the reason for such a long timeline is the fact that scientists want to ensure that the vaccine is ...
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What is the justification for bacterial vaccines for which the body has natural immunity?

What is the purpose of using vaccines against commonly found bacteria? Since the human immune system develops at birth and shortly thereafter (via colostrum) natural defenses against common bacteria, ...
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Is preventive BCG vaccination against covid-19 close to be recommendable or is there still a lot to be done before recommending?

I've read the study: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.24.20042937v1 showing that the BCG vaccination status may influence the susceptibility to covid-19 in a population. It also hints ...
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Can computer programmers help to find a vaccine against corona?

How can a competition among computer programmers be helpful to find a vaccine against corona? HackZurich, under the patronage of the Federal Department of Home Affairs (FDHA), aims to use the ...
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Why will COVID-19 last for 12 to 18 months?

In this YouTube video min 0:32, Dr. Samir Gupta, says It typically would last for 12 to 18 months In How the Pandemic Will End in the ll. The Endgame section: No matter which strategy is ...
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Does exposure to less than the Minimum Infective Dose act as a vaccine in some cases?

I know that there's no immune response/adaptation of some (relatively) new viruses like HIV for which it's estimated that it would take at least 32,000 years for humans to develop a non-pathogenic ...
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Evidence that SARS-CoV-2 immunity is long lasting?

Public media seems to broadly suggest that a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is simply a matter of time. However, this not great source suggests that all other common human coronaviruses only provide immunity for ...
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Influenza vaccine status, non-influenza acute respiratory infections, and COVID-19

Disclaimer This is in no way an "anti-vax" post - it is intended as a serious open discussion as to possible interplay between Influenza vaccine status and non-influenza upper respiratory ...
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Are there any central trackers for COVID-19 trials?

There are several aggregate central trackers for the spread of COVID-19. Like this one, for example. Is there anything similar for trials? Or trials in the pipeline? Either vaccines or treatments?