Questions tagged [endocrinology]

The branch of physiology and medicine concerned with endocrine glands and hormones.

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What is the specific relationship between Prehormones, Prohormones and PreProHormones?

What is the basic sequence of pre-, pro- and prepro- hormones leading to the formation of the final mature and active hormone? I am asking because this PowerPoint slide in my Endocrinology ...
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Co-existence of LO-CAH with Addison's decease?

What is known about the co-existence of LO-CAH (late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia) with Addison's decease? Has anyone ever tried to investigate, to see if (some) Addison's patient, in fact ...
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Hyposecretion of cortisol lead to depressed immune system?

I understand that cortisol decreases both the number of white blood cells and the secretion of inflammatory chemical from tissues. So shouldn't a under(hypo) secretion of cortisol, lead to an ...
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Why isn't there a hormonal therapy specific to the treatment of PCOS?

Women with Polycystic Ovarian syndrome are commonly prescribed oral contraceptives for the reducing effect of anti-androgens on symptoms such as acne and hirsutism. I don't have great medical ...
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What's the rationale behind measuring free T4?

There are two types of T4 (Thyroxine), some are bound to a protein and inactive and some are free and active. Now we can measure either total T4 or free T4. This is done to measure the function of ...
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1 answer
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What is the rationale of using Metformin in Pre-Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes?

Mechanism of action of Metformin is Ultimately, it decreases gluconeogenesis (glucose production) in the liver Gluconeogenesis results from breaking up of fat. Metformin also inhibits cellular ...
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Different names for HbA1c

Am a data analyst working on healthcare data analysis. I came across the below terms in my source data from the hospital system. I did a google search and found that they all are the same Glycated HB ...
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How human placental lactogen (hPL) is associated with insulin resistance in pregnancy?

I am unable to understand the molecular mechanism of hPL induced insulin resistance. Sharing of relevant article/text would be of immense help.
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Breakthrough bleeding on progestogen-only contraception

Background In hormonal contraception, two types of hormones are used; estrogens and progestogens. The progestogens are the type of hormone that is mainly responsible for the contraceptive effects. ...
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Why does adenosine processing require unconsciousness?

I've heard that one of the purposes of sleep is to process adenosine that builds up from metabolic processes, and it makes sense that the effect of adenosine as a neurotransmitter is to produce ...
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1 answer
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Why is cushing's syndrome mainly associated with cortisol?

When I hear Cushing's I always hear and think of cortisol excess. How come its cortisol that is mainly associated with this condition - more than mineralogical/ aldosterone or androgens? I ...
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How much melatonin does the body produce naturally per day?

Melatonin supplements are readily available over-the-counter. However, the dosage is not regulated and there are supplements available in a wide variety of doses. Information on how much melatonin ...
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Does premenstrual tension/stress persist after menopause?

"Premenstral stress/tension" (PMS/PMT) as commonly defined does exist I don't want to upset anyone by downplaying the real effects of PMT/PMS. Reports such as those pointed out by the NHS aside, I ...
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Safety of low dose testosterone therapy on biologically female individuals?

With the raising awareness about gender identity and specifically the recognition of non-binary identities, new challenges are faced by medicine. Specifically, there are individuals who don't feel ...
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Does a hormone PTSH exist?

It's known that a hormone called TSH (thyroid stimulate hormone) does exist and it's secreted in the pituitary gland. But my question is about a hormone which secreted from the pituitary gland too ...
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1 answer
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Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range [closed]

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2674146/ I found some papers suggesting AMDR is not the optimum and it is too high on carbohydrates in particular. Is it generally safe to undergo a 27....
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Which hormonal treatments have been shown to be useful to prevent or treat tendinopathies?

Which hormonal treatments have been shown to be useful to prevent or treat tendinopathies? {1} surveyed the links between hormones and tendinopathies but their main conclusion is: The influence of ...
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What metric is used to measure estrogen levels?

I have had a blood test recently and over the phone I was told by a doctorthat my oestrogen level is high. I'm a man and was told my level is "190, but the average is 150". 190 what? I forgot to ask ...
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“There is a very strong correlation between consuming dairy products — such as milk — and acne, skin breakouts and aging.”

I read an article here that says: “There is a very strong correlation between consuming dairy products — such as milk — and acne, skin breakouts and aging.” The reason? Hormones, Bella says. ...
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Could a high TSH level mean a problem with the pituitary gland?

When our physician suspects we might have a problem with our thyroid he sends us to check the TSH level in our blood. If there is a lot of TSH in the blood it means that the thyroid can't work quickly ...
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Is lean non-hyperandrogenic polycystic ovary syndrome genetic?

I read many papers that address the genetic factor of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). But all the papers I have been through focus on classic PCOS with hyperparathyroidism and insulin resistance. I ...
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What advanced detection schemes can provide low cost screening for Latent Autoimmune Diabetes?

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) may be more prevalent than previously believed. A common marker for the most common form is glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD-65). Are there low cost and ...
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Is adrenaline a coctail of hormones, rather than one hormone?

Although it has been called the "Fight or Flight Hormone" adrenaline can be better described as 'Do it NOW!!! hormones." First things first, notice the 's.' Adrenaline isn't just one thing, but a ...
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Eczema and steroids: why do endogenous cortisol and exogenous cortisone/prednisone differ?

Topical steroids are a mainstay treatment for eczema, and severe episodes are sometimes treated with oral steroids. Meanwhile stress is a known trigger for exacerbating eczema. During physiological ...
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Can removing a contraceptive implant cause secondary amenorrhea?

When a woman stops taking birth control medication, she might suffer from various side effects. Can secondary amenorrhea (i.e. missing periods for more than 3 months) be induced by the removal of a ...
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What is the link between elevated estrogen and lowered alkaline phosphatase?

This Wikipdia-article lists several conditions or diseases that may lead to reduced levels of alkaline phosphatase (AP). Among them are: postmenopausal women receiving estrogen therapy because of ...
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Does elevated potassium lead to elevated cortisol?

I came across this statement on Selfhacked: If you have high cortisol, you will do worse with a high salt diet and you will be potassium deficient in the long term (few people as it is get the RDA)...
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What are the changes of diamine oxidase (DAO)-activity with different sex hormones?

Based on this question: What happens to a woman if she takes testosterone? i have another question and would like to know more - that's because i've stumbled over this: DAO activity in tissues of ...
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Causes for elevated beta-HCG and AFP

I am interested in finding possible causes of elevated levels of beta-HCG and Alpha-1-Fetoprotein in males. However, as much as I see, the only answer I find relates to cancer, and my curiosity is ...
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Can an elevated TSH and normal T3 and T4 biologically cause fatigue?

I understand that if the levels of T3 and T4 are lower than normal, that this could directly lead to fatigue since these hormones directly regulate metabolism inside every cell. But is there an ...
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What happens to a woman if she takes testosterone?

I'm interested in the changes that happen to the female body (let's say this person is 20) in the short (year one to five) and in the long term (20+ years). Let's assume that the dose of testosterone ...
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Effectiveness of blue light filters for preventing delayed and decreased melatonin secretion?

The iPhone offers a "night shift" feature. Research indicates that blue light exposure decreases melatonin secretion (e.g., Ferguson, Melton, Li, Park, & Tosini, 2008). To what extent do built-...
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Why Dydrogesterone is no longer available in US? Why dienogest is not approved?

Dydrogesterone and Dienogest are very very helpful medications in treating endometriosis condition, and Dydrogesterone helps many women to become pregnant. They are widely used around the world and ...
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Effects of hypophosphatemia on DNA

There is a lot of supportive evidence that its role in ATP results in much of the clinical manifestation of hypophosphatemia, but I was wondering about the other roles where Phosphate is an important ...
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transdermal estrogen use sans progesterone & endometrial and breast cancer risk?

To what extent does transdermal estrogen use, without co-use of progesterone, increase endometrial and breast cancer risk? How does risk, if it exists correlate with years of use?
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How does metformin interact with nicotine?

Does co-use of nicotine replacement therapy and metformin increase lactic acidosis risk? If so, how?
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1 answer
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How long would it take for one's thyroid hormones to get to dangerously low levels?

If the thyroid gland just completely stopped working and it went untreated, how long would it take for one's thyroid hormones to get to dangerously low levels? At what point does Myxedema Coma occur?
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menorrhagia in early hyperthyroidism

What is the pathophysiology of menustral irregularities in hyperthyroidism? Especially early menorrhagia seen in early hyperthyroidism?
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Why doesn't food taste good to my mouth?

Sorry I couldn't find a better title but by this question I'm not really looking for a cure. I'm just curious to know what happened to me and in my body. So I would never enjoy food except a couple ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Impact of Various "Feminizing" Hormones on Metabolism

I've read that progesterone is linked to changes in metabolism and appetite, and that those undergoing hormone therapy with progesterone often experience profound changes in hunger and meal habits. I ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Amount of phytoestrogens in processed soy like tofu

Does anyone know the amount of phytoestrogens like genistein in for example cooked soy, tofu, tempeh etc.?
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1 vote
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Low Insulin but Normal Blood sugar

What does is mean when fasting Insulin Levels are Very Low (0.7 uU/ml) but Fasting Blood sugar levels are normal 4.2 mmol KD.
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7 votes
2 answers
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Why do guys develop "abs" more easily than girls?

Is there something different in the muscle structure for males vs. females? Or does it have to do with hormones?
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What is the relationship between hormones and proteins?

What is the relationship between hormones and proteins: are hormones a group of specific proteins (or vice versa)? Or are there some hormones that are not considered proteins (or vice versa)? Can ...
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3 votes
1 answer
534 views

Does blindness stop the production of melatonin?

Melatonin is the hormone that gives the "expectation" of darkness. It has no use in blind people, so do they slowly stop (or immediately) secreting it? I heard it is given artificially to help with ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Lab test result meaning

Why in this lab test results the microsomal antibodies amount has less sign and thireoglobulin antibodies don't have this sign? I did not question it first but now I have suspicion may be I am not ...
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2 votes
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Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) Ab Test- normal or abmormal

I had a variety of test ran on my thyroid and I'm waiting to see the DR. My question is the TPOAb reference rang is 0-34. Mine came back as 9 IU/ml. Is this still considered normal or abnormal? I also ...
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What is Surya Namaskar Yoga?

Can we cure hormonal imbalance by doing Surya namaskar? and what is the best time and place to do it ?
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1 answer
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Is there any risk from eating meals before/after HGH shots?

I'm undergoing HGH therapy, and I see a lot of conflicting information on the internet another whether or not it's truly bad to eat meals after/before the shots -- supposedly, it can increase the risk ...
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If a man occasionally wakes up after five hours of sleep, is it safe for him to take melatonin even though the night is almost over?

Melatonin, a hormone, is sold over-the-counter in the US and Canada. Bedtime is a good time to take melatonin Clinical psychologist Michael Breus writes: Melatonin is a sleep and body clock ...
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