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Questions tagged [endocrinology]

The branch of physiology and medicine concerned with endocrine glands and hormones.

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-1 votes
1 answer
46 views

Are treatments for (hyper/hypo)parathyroidism mutually exclusive from treatmeants to (hyper/hypo)calcemia?

Summarized in the table below the drugs that were listed in my professor's lecture slides for the treatment of Hyperparathyroidism (first column) and hypoparathyroidism (second column) Are treatments ...
3 votes
1 answer
129 views

Why hormone replacement (e.g. Levothyroxine) for high TSH levels when T3 and T4 levels are normal

For hypothyroidism where TSH is elevated (> 10 μU per mL) but T3 and T4 are in the normal range, what is the effect of prescribing hormone replacement (e.g. Levothyroxine)? My understanding is that ...
0 votes
0 answers
23 views

HPA axis recovery

How long does it take for the HPA axis to recover after prolonged (<2 weeks therapy ) steroid therapy apart from other side effects?
0 votes
1 answer
55 views

Why is adrenaline typically not prescribed as pills?

The common way to treat mild allergies is giving antihistaminergic drugs and/or steroids (such as fluticasone). I understand that adrenaline can also be used, and is used, mostly for severe, emergency ...
4 votes
1 answer
103 views

Breakthrough bleeding on progestogen-only contraception

Background In hormonal contraception, two types of hormones are used; estrogens and progestogens. The progestogens are the type of hormone that is mainly responsible for the contraceptive effects. ...
2 votes
1 answer
75 views

Hyposecretion of cortisol lead to depressed immune system?

I understand that cortisol decreases both the number of white blood cells and the secretion of inflammatory chemical from tissues. So shouldn't a under(hypo) secretion of cortisol, lead to an ...
7 votes
2 answers
365 views

Does elevated potassium lead to elevated cortisol?

I came across this statement on Selfhacked: If you have high cortisol, you will do worse with a high salt diet and you will be potassium deficient in the long term (few people as it is get the RDA)...
2 votes
1 answer
42 views

Why is cushing's syndrome mainly associated with cortisol?

When I hear Cushing's I always hear and think of cortisol excess. How come its cortisol that is mainly associated with this condition - more than mineralogical/ aldosterone or androgens? I ...
5 votes
3 answers
263 views

“There is a very strong correlation between consuming dairy products — such as milk — and acne, skin breakouts and aging.”

I read an article here that says: “There is a very strong correlation between consuming dairy products — such as milk — and acne, skin breakouts and aging.” The reason? Hormones, Bella says. ...
0 votes
2 answers
86 views

What is the specific relationship between Prehormones, Prohormones and PreProHormones?

What is the basic sequence of pre-, pro- and prepro- hormones leading to the formation of the final mature and active hormone? I am asking because this PowerPoint slide in my Endocrinology ...
1 vote
2 answers
1k views

How much melatonin does the body produce naturally per day?

Melatonin supplements are readily available over-the-counter. However, the dosage is not regulated and there are supplements available in a wide variety of doses. Information on how much melatonin ...
1 vote
1 answer
250 views

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range [closed]

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2674146/ I found some papers suggesting AMDR is not the optimum and it is too high on carbohydrates in particular. Is it generally safe to undergo a 27....
1 vote
1 answer
51 views

Why isn't there a hormonal therapy specific to the treatment of PCOS?

Women with Polycystic Ovarian syndrome are commonly prescribed oral contraceptives for the reducing effect of anti-androgens on symptoms such as acne and hirsutism. I don't have great medical ...
1 vote
1 answer
47 views

What's the rationale behind measuring free T4?

There are two types of T4 (Thyroxine), some are bound to a protein and inactive and some are free and active. Now we can measure either total T4 or free T4. This is done to measure the function of ...
2 votes
1 answer
99 views

What is the rationale of using Metformin in Pre-Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes?

Mechanism of action of Metformin is Ultimately, it decreases gluconeogenesis (glucose production) in the liver Gluconeogenesis results from breaking up of fat. Metformin also inhibits cellular ...
0 votes
1 answer
40 views

Different names for HbA1c

Am a data analyst working on healthcare data analysis. I came across the below terms in my source data from the hospital system. I did a google search and found that they all are the same Glycated HB ...
0 votes
1 answer
32 views

How human placental lactogen (hPL) is associated with insulin resistance in pregnancy?

I am unable to understand the molecular mechanism of hPL induced insulin resistance. Sharing of relevant article/text would be of immense help.
6 votes
1 answer
87 views

How long would it take for one's thyroid hormones to get to dangerously low levels?

If the thyroid gland just completely stopped working and it went untreated, how long would it take for one's thyroid hormones to get to dangerously low levels? At what point does Myxedema Coma occur?
0 votes
2 answers
69 views

Why does adenosine processing require unconsciousness?

I've heard that one of the purposes of sleep is to process adenosine that builds up from metabolic processes, and it makes sense that the effect of adenosine as a neurotransmitter is to produce ...
8 votes
1 answer
744 views

What happens to a woman if she takes testosterone?

I'm interested in the changes that happen to the female body (let's say this person is 20) in the short (year one to five) and in the long term (20+ years). Let's assume that the dose of testosterone ...
5 votes
2 answers
116 views

Does a hormone PTSH exist?

It's known that a hormone called TSH (thyroid stimulate hormone) does exist and it's secreted in the pituitary gland. But my question is about a hormone which secreted from the pituitary gland too ...
1 vote
0 answers
33 views

Does premenstrual tension/stress persist after menopause?

"Premenstral stress/tension" (PMS/PMT) as commonly defined does exist I don't want to upset anyone by downplaying the real effects of PMT/PMS. Reports such as those pointed out by the NHS aside, I ...
1 vote
1 answer
50 views

Impact of Various "Feminizing" Hormones on Metabolism

I've read that progesterone is linked to changes in metabolism and appetite, and that those undergoing hormone therapy with progesterone often experience profound changes in hunger and meal habits. I ...
1 vote
0 answers
32 views

Safety of low dose testosterone therapy on biologically female individuals?

With the raising awareness about gender identity and specifically the recognition of non-binary identities, new challenges are faced by medicine. Specifically, there are individuals who don't feel ...
6 votes
1 answer
13k views

Is there any risk from eating meals before/after HGH shots?

I'm undergoing HGH therapy, and I see a lot of conflicting information on the internet another whether or not it's truly bad to eat meals after/before the shots -- supposedly, it can increase the risk ...
1 vote
0 answers
16 views

Which hormonal treatments have been shown to be useful to prevent or treat tendinopathies?

Which hormonal treatments have been shown to be useful to prevent or treat tendinopathies? {1} surveyed the links between hormones and tendinopathies but their main conclusion is: The influence of ...
2 votes
0 answers
37 views

What advanced detection schemes can provide low cost screening for Latent Autoimmune Diabetes?

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) may be more prevalent than previously believed. A common marker for the most common form is glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD-65). Are there low cost and ...
2 votes
0 answers
66 views

What metric is used to measure estrogen levels?

I have had a blood test recently and over the phone I was told by a doctorthat my oestrogen level is high. I'm a man and was told my level is "190, but the average is 150". 190 what? I forgot to ask ...
5 votes
1 answer
293 views

Could a high TSH level mean a problem with the pituitary gland?

When our physician suspects we might have a problem with our thyroid he sends us to check the TSH level in our blood. If there is a lot of TSH in the blood it means that the thyroid can't work quickly ...
3 votes
0 answers
38 views

Is lean non-hyperandrogenic polycystic ovary syndrome genetic?

I read many papers that address the genetic factor of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). But all the papers I have been through focus on classic PCOS with hyperparathyroidism and insulin resistance. I ...
5 votes
1 answer
108 views

Eczema and steroids: why do endogenous cortisol and exogenous cortisone/prednisone differ?

Topical steroids are a mainstay treatment for eczema, and severe episodes are sometimes treated with oral steroids. Meanwhile stress is a known trigger for exacerbating eczema. During physiological ...
6 votes
1 answer
204 views

Is adrenaline a coctail of hormones, rather than one hormone?

Although it has been called the "Fight or Flight Hormone" adrenaline can be better described as 'Do it NOW!!! hormones." First things first, notice the 's.' Adrenaline isn't just one thing, but a ...
3 votes
0 answers
32 views

Effects of hypophosphatemia on DNA

There is a lot of supportive evidence that its role in ATP results in much of the clinical manifestation of hypophosphatemia, but I was wondering about the other roles where Phosphate is an important ...
4 votes
0 answers
41 views

Effectiveness of blue light filters for preventing delayed and decreased melatonin secretion?

The iPhone offers a "night shift" feature. Research indicates that blue light exposure decreases melatonin secretion (e.g., Ferguson, Melton, Li, Park, & Tosini, 2008). To what extent do built-...
3 votes
0 answers
57 views

Causes for elevated beta-HCG and AFP

I am interested in finding possible causes of elevated levels of beta-HCG and Alpha-1-Fetoprotein in males. However, as much as I see, the only answer I find relates to cancer, and my curiosity is ...
6 votes
0 answers
56 views

What is the link between elevated estrogen and lowered alkaline phosphatase?

This Wikipdia-article lists several conditions or diseases that may lead to reduced levels of alkaline phosphatase (AP). Among them are: postmenopausal women receiving estrogen therapy because of ...
1 vote
0 answers
27 views

Can removing a contraceptive implant cause secondary amenorrhea?

When a woman stops taking birth control medication, she might suffer from various side effects. Can secondary amenorrhea (i.e. missing periods for more than 3 months) be induced by the removal of a ...
11 votes
1 answer
179 views

"Narrow" Pure Androgen-secreting Adrenocortical Adenoma

I was looking for a case report or example to match something I've come across that I thought highly unlikely to the point of being untrue. That is a adrenocortical adenoma (AA) was functional but ...
2 votes
0 answers
43 views

What are the changes of diamine oxidase (DAO)-activity with different sex hormones?

Based on this question: What happens to a woman if she takes testosterone? i have another question and would like to know more - that's because i've stumbled over this: DAO activity in tissues of ...
1 vote
1 answer
95 views

Can an elevated TSH and normal T3 and T4 biologically cause fatigue?

I understand that if the levels of T3 and T4 are lower than normal, that this could directly lead to fatigue since these hormones directly regulate metabolism inside every cell. But is there an ...
4 votes
0 answers
103 views

How does metformin interact with nicotine?

Does co-use of nicotine replacement therapy and metformin increase lactic acidosis risk? If so, how?
7 votes
1 answer
580 views

What does metformin do to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome?

Metformin is a drug used to treat diabetes but one of its off-label uses is to treat Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. What does metformin do for someone who has PCOS but does not have diabetes? Is ...
3 votes
0 answers
134 views

What are the testosterone tests that I can take to prove that my low libido is really a testosterone problem?

I understand that ( correct me if I am wrong) the Sex Hormone Binding Globulin ( SHBG) test is one of the tests that can be used to evaluate one's libido. The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) ...
4 votes
1 answer
7k views

Why Dydrogesterone is no longer available in US? Why dienogest is not approved?

Dydrogesterone and Dienogest are very very helpful medications in treating endometriosis condition, and Dydrogesterone helps many women to become pregnant. They are widely used around the world and ...
9 votes
1 answer
1k views

Does hyperthyroidism affect serotonin levels?

I have read that hyperthyroidism can cause depression. Is this because of low serotonin levels or is there is another cause? Does this kind of depression need to be checked by a psychiatrist? Edit (...
9 votes
1 answer
181 views

Does inhibiting prolactin levels cause any health problems?

I am using a prolactin inhibitor drug called "Dostinex". In general, it has some positive effects on me (increased libido, better mood) and I haven't realized any bad side effects. I'm wondering, ...
4 votes
0 answers
22 views

transdermal estrogen use sans progesterone & endometrial and breast cancer risk?

To what extent does transdermal estrogen use, without co-use of progesterone, increase endometrial and breast cancer risk? How does risk, if it exists correlate with years of use?
9 votes
1 answer
199 views

Hashimoto thyroiditis leading to severe psychological problems and behavior changes?

Can Hashimoto thyroiditis lead to psychological problems and severe behavioral changes? Do existing psychological problems (anxiety, depression, etc.) 'compound' when layered with Hashimoto ...
7 votes
2 answers
8k views

Why do guys develop "abs" more easily than girls?

Is there something different in the muscle structure for males vs. females? Or does it have to do with hormones?
4 votes
1 answer
2k views

Does taking melatonin cause a reduction in the amount of melatonin the brain produces?

I take melatonin fairly frequently, but I have noticed that it does not work as well as it once did. I am wondering if by taking melatonin, the brain reduces its natural production of melatonin.