Questions tagged [medications]

Questions related to intake, use, safety, side effects, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drugs, prodrugs and medication.

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Definition of fasted state

Is there a general definition what consists a fasted state? The medical literature I have read so far uses the term ambiguously, i.e. from overnight abstinence to 2h of no food intake. Is there a ...
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Is generic name a synonym for active ingredient?

What is the difference between active ingredient and generic name? Is generic name always equal to the active ingredients or are these sometimes different? For example, Benadryl has a generic name, ...
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Can I ask medical questions about the courses I study here? [migrated]

I'm new to this community! I was wondering if I can ask questions about the doubts I have in the courses I study, I'm 1st year MD student and I'm not sure if my questions are suitable for this ...
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Using Aspirin to Counter Platelet Aggregating Effects of COX2 Inhibitors?

I've been reading pharmacology of NSAIDs a bit and I came over the point that, Selective COX2 Inhibitors will cause unopposed Thromboxane A2 action but are otherwise great as anti-inflammatory agents. ...
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Why have we obtained significantly different results for moisture content on two different brands of moisture analyzers?

Our pharmaceutical laboratory has two moisture analyzers in use; one is Shimadzu MOC3u (MC-A), and the other is Mettler-Toledo HC103 (MC-B). A sample from the same batch was put on each instrument to ...
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How to estimate equivalent doses of similar medicines with different route of administration?

I am trying to compare the two medications used as rescue medications for seizures 5mg Rectal Diazepam 2.5mg Buccal Midazolam (Buccolam) I am aware that Midazolam is considered to be more potent than ...
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Would slight shifting of administration times of Paxlovid impact its efficacy?

Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir) is an oral medication indicated for patients recently diagnosed with COVID-19 and who are at high risk of deterioration. This drug received an emergency use ...
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Why do so many OTC drugs have one-size-fits-all dosing instructions?

Every over-the-counter medication I've seen in recent memory (in the USA) has had instructions along the lines of, "Adults and children 12 years and older: 1 pill every 4 hours, 12 and under: ...
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Does a Doctor exist that is able to encapsulate triaging differing specialities? [closed]

My girlfriend has multiple health issues: ASD ADHD BPD Type 1 Diabetes Wolf Parkinsons Disease Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibromyalgia Perferatted Valve Reynauds Disease The issue is each one ...
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Has there been any medical studies as to whether drinking a 'Hot Toddy' can help to ward off or to help heal someone who has COVID-19? [closed]

I am curious to know if there has been any medical studies that have been conducted to ascertain if drinking a 'Hot Toddy' every day will decrease the odds of someone being infected by the COVID-19 ...
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What are the basic reasons for normogonadotropic hypogonadism?

I'm can't fine the full known scope of reasons of male normogonadotropic hypogonadism. From this article I see the two basic reasons: Gonadal dysgenesis variants (residually functioning ovarian ...
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Why are Drugs.com side-effect incidence rates so different from manufacturer/FDA reports?

Entries at Drugs.com have a section on "Side Effects... For Healthcare Professionals" which present percentages for incidence rates of side effects. However, I've found that the rates ...
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Ritalin/Concerta/Methylphenidate is an amphetamine?

FIDE (the governing body of international chess competition) says here: The most relevant banned substances for chess are: • Amphetamines – e.g. Adderall, Ritalin (...) Image: I think either ...
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H1-antihistamines classified according to pharmacology?

I've been researching H1-antihistamines for personal reasons. And I'm trying to find out if H1-antihistamines are sorted based on pharmacology. I understand that H1-antihistamines have up to three ...
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Amino acid data - 101 for beginners

I am a data analyst who received amino acid data from lab to transform them into a form suitable for analysis. What I would like to check with you is check whether the below terms mean the same? For ...
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Why there is histamine release following d-TC administration?

Skeletal muscle relaxants (specifically Isoquinoline derivatives like d-Tubocuriarine) liberate Histamine from Mast cells. Ref: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2581878/ What is the mechanism of this ...
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How do I stop my doctor from killing me? [closed]

In the international best-selling author, Dr Vernon Coleman's book 'how to stop your doctor killing you', he explains that the person most likely to kill you is not a burglar, a mugger, a deranged ...
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What is the state of transmissible vaccines?

I was thinking about viral gain of function research -- and firebugs playing with matches -- when it hit me: if a highly contagious, but harmless version were engineered it could outcompete more ...
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Why are some tablets Telmisartan, Amlodipine and Hydrochlorothiazide bilayered and some are not?

I recently saw that some brands of Telmisartan, Amlodipine and Hydrochlorothiazide tablets are bilayered and some are not? On Googling I found this Bilayered tablet technology separates two ...
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How effective is sinovac/sinopharm vaccine

it's time for me to get vaccinated with sinovac vaccine. I am actually a little bit nervous, about its effectiveness, I am not a docotor and I have no idea what's behind it. I am worrying that it ...
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Decreasing Risks of MAOIs

Are Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) as dangerous as they are made out to be? I am new to pharmacology, but here is my understanding of MAOIs and antidepressants in general: There is a ...
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Monotherapy of multiple drugs or combination therapy - Beginner 101

Let's say that patient A is taking drugs like as shown below |---atenolol-----esmolol----nebivolol---------------------| |---s------e-----s-----e----s-------e---------------------| here s and e ...
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Does Remdesivir really go bad after reconstitution with sterile water?

I was recently looking at how long can Remdesivir be stored in its different forms. I came up across several articles provided by the FDA and Gilead Sciences and others. What caught my eye was the ...
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How can an individual seek to get an idea investigated as a potential treatment, or seek a change in a particular guideline?

It would be dangerous for the general public to provide advice on 'what they reckon' would be a good treatment or a good guideline for medical advice; and that has clearly caused problems in the past. ...
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Is there a free vaccine or medicinal product database?

Is there a database that allows me to query for available vaccine products by ingredients? For instance, I want to find an available vaccine product that contains "Streptococcus pneumoniae ...
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What is the average optimal time interval before or after a meal when medicines should be taken?

Many medicines and supplements specify that they should be taken either before of after a meal—and I know that this means some time must pass, not gulping the med immediately next to the meal. However,...
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Effects of anti-Rh(D) antibodies on the fetus

Rh disease is caused by the irruption in the fetal circulation of anti-Rh(D) antibodies. This only happens when there has been a prior exposure of the mother to Rh+ RBC. To prevent Rh sensitization ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Are there any randomized clinical trials being conducted on TMPRSS2 inhibitors for Covid-19 treatment?

In a recent paper on why hydroxychloroquine doesn't really work against Covid-19, it's been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 is much better at taking advantage of TMPRSS2 at the cell membrane surface, so ...
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How to evaluate long-term safety of biological interventions?

I'm wondering how to go about evaluating the long term effects of a biological intervention, like a new therapeutic. There is emergent evidence that common medications like NSAIDs or anticholinergics ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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How do mRNA vaccines work and what are their advantages over traditional vaccines?

How do mRNA vaccines work? To my intuitive understanding, for an mRNA vaccine to work, the mRNAs injected into the patient need to first enter a cell and get translated into proteins. Those proteins ...
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Does L-theanine increase caffeine's half-life?

Does consuming L-theanine with caffeine, either in drink (like matcha) or in pill form, affect the half-life of caffeine? All I can find about these substances ares claims that L-theanine slows the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Can an individual survive methanol poisoning if the drink is mixed with isopropanol? [closed]

I have a friend who last year suffered severe drug addiction and decided to consume windshield washer fluid that contains methanol/isopropanol. He drank it from Saturday to Wednseday before being ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Is there a relationship between slope of the plasma concentration-time curve and addictiveness?

I've been reading about addiction medicine, and a lot of the discussion on pharmacokinetics seems to imply a truth that is never actually stated in words. Background: The Plasma Concentration vs. Time ...
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1 answer
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Is calling dexamethasone a "psychoactive steroid medication" correct use of the term psychoactive? Because it has reported psychological side effects?

Pete Buttigieg has a decent educational and professional background and good command of the English language and some appreciation for facts, which is why I call this choice of words into question and ...
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Activated charcoal administered rectally?

A colleague of mine, an experienced pharmacist, told me that there used to be a product of activated charcoal called Charcodote, which could have been used either orally or rectally. I doubted this, ...
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Why do antidepressant drugs increase body mass?

Serotonin is an anorexient neurotransmitter. But if I am right, antidepressant drugs like SSRIs increase the amount of serotonin in the brain. So why do antidepressants increase body mass if ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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How do you know if an over the counter drug is safely processed and safe to use?

How do you know if an over the counter drug is safely processed and safe to use? I have not heard of the brand SDA Laboratories before, so tried searching online to see if it has any safety ...
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Is metamizole associated with rebound headaches?

I can't find any specific mention on the internet if Metamizole (most known as dipyrone) is specifically associated with rebound headaches like other pain relieve medications like Aspirin, ...
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If placebo controls work even when the patient is aware that the treatment is a placebo. Why are deceptive placebo controls used?

Placebos are “fake” treatments prescribed for the psychological benefit to the patient rather than for any physiological effect. Placebos are used for conditions defined by “self-observation” symptoms ...
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Tick bite treatment. Doxycycline intake suspended after 3 days only. If substituted by Bactrim, is there a risk to develop bacteria resistant?

A patient was bitten by a tick and carried the tick on his skin for 5/6 days (which got engorged at the end). Then the tick dropped spontaneously. He has been prescribed a preventive antibiotic course ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Why are some medicines recommended to be taken with a high dose and low frequency?

Alendronate sodium is an osteoporosis medicine commonly recommended as a once-a-week 70 mg dose. Why not 35 mg twice a week? or 10 mg daily? I am guessing that a more steady intake like this would be ...
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Book of drug interactions

Where can I find full list of drug _ drug interaction & adverse reaction, apart from pdr.net, I mean to say in a book form. What books of medical science contain these information? Please name a ...
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interaction between Mirtazapine & Mesalamine & olanzapine [closed]

Is there any adverse reaction or interaction between Mirtazapine & Mesalamine & olanzapine, If taken in low doses(mirtazapine 7.5 & Olanzapine 2.5).
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3 votes
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Why is methadone not prescribed with naloxone for opioid use disorder?

Two possible treatments for opioid use disorder are methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone (suboxone). According to the National Alliance of Mental Illness(https://www.nami.org/About-Mental-Illness/...
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Where can I find a list (even if only partial) of excipients that cause a medication to be indivisible?

Certain tablet formulations should not be divided or halved because the tablets are film-coated for low pH resistance (i.e. for safe passage in the stomach) or because the active ingredient is not ...
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1 vote
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Are antibiotics the only class of drugs whose effectiveness reduces over time?

The phenomenon of antibiotic resistance is well known: an antibiotic is effective when first introduced to the market, but over the years, its effectiveness decreases as resistant strains of bacteria ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Why do corticosteroids have few kidney-related side effects?

Prostaglandins are involved with promoting various renal functions. Therefore, NSAIDs, like indomethacin which inhibits protaglandin formation through COX enzyme inhibition, tend to have many side-...
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3 votes
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Why is prothrombin time used to monitor warfarin and not aPTT?

Warfarin is said to change prothrombin time (PT) but not activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (for practical purposes at least anyways, not really sure). But looking at the mechanism of action ...
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Is it useless to drip Vitamin D drops on your tongue? [closed]

One celebrity doctor in my country says that Vitamin D can be absorbed only in the small intestine and that dropping Vitamin D drops on your tongue is therefore useless, because most of the liquid ...
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Have any conclusions been made regarding the interaction of Covid-19 and ACE inhibitor medications? [duplicate]

About two months ago, I started to see articles appear regarding the potential interactions between ACE inhibitor medications (commonly used to treat high blood pressure) and the severity of Covid-19 ...
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