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Because leprosy and multiple myeloma are conditions for which other treatment options are limited. All treatments have side effects, some more debilitating than others. The trick with pharmacology is to balance the benefit of treatment with the hazards of the side effects. Take cancer chemotherapy. The drugs we use for cancer chemotherapy are horrible ...


20

Stems and affixes tell you the class of drug (and sometimes other properties). Drugs in the same class work in a very similar way, so therefore you can tell what other drugs it's related to. This is a massive list: https://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/jsp/drugportal/DrugNameGenericStems.jsp Usually it's the suffix that tells you the most. For example: ...


14

The human (and other animals) upper digestive tract is 'designed' to ingest relatively large (compared to most pills), soft, moist boluses. The muscles of the tongue and pharynx can propel these kinds of objects (including liquid) into the esophagus with ease, unless there is some specific pathology at work. Chewing also tends to naturally push food toward ...


13

Marijuana as medicine Its usage in modern times is controversial, however studies of chemicals in the plant (cannabinoids such as THC, CBD) has lead to two FDA-approved medications and more research may lead to more medications. Marinol which has been approved by FDA is used for the treatment of anorexia in HIV/AIDS patients as well as for nausea and ...


12

I will try to answer your question by using another perspective (risk factors for infertility). MALE Among the main causes of male infertility, "idiopathic" causes (ie not du to endocrine problems, genetic defects or sperm transport problems) represent 40%. In the last decades, increasing attention has been given to environmental factors. Here a brief ...


11

First generation H1-antihistamines (such as diphenhydramine = Benadryl) are well known for their sedative effects explaining their limited use in patients with allergic rhinitis. Several pharmacological studies have shown that diphenhydramine crosses the blood brain barrier and produces CNS sedation. Two studies have (partly) addressed your question ...


9

Is the above result believable? The results show treatment of symptoms of ED, if the medication stops then the symptoms will come back. So yes the results are believable one could say, but they are not permanent. If yes, what makes Cialis cure Erectile Dysfunction permanently? CIALIS does not: Cure ED, increase a man's sexual desire, protect a man or ...


8

Antidepressant Discontinuation Syndrome Affects approximately 20% of patients who experience abrupt discontinuation of an antidepressant that has been taken for at least 6 weeks. There are a myriad of symptoms including flu-like symptoms, insomnia, nausea, imbalance, sensory disturbances, and hyperarousal. The definitive cause of antidepressant ...


8

It is not possible. The regulation of human body temperature (thermoregulation) is very subtle. Wikipedia article about thermoregulation contains a very nice graph about that mechanism. The labels are not described in the text in detail and the reference in the caption does not include this picture. Picture is a work by one JW Dietrich and I also searched ...


8

There is a substance similar to caffeine - theobromine, found in cocoa. They are chemically similar, and have some similar effects*: the formula above shows theobromine, and this is caffeine. Of course, there is the concern if you react like you described to one xanthine derivative (caffeine), would you react in a similar way to another compound from this ...


8

Before going directly into the topic, firstly, it is necessary to comprehend the mechanism of erection, because small fault due to different factors in the mechanism gives rise to its dysfunction. An erection is a complex process. It involves the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, psychological and psychological factors, local factors ...


7

No, this does not alter them, or make them less effective. There are problems with a scant amount of medicine crumbling, as you've noticed. The only real concern I'd have for anyone doing this is regarding the authorities: for example, while traveling out of the country, it's good to keep your medicines in their original prescription bottles because it ...


7

[I]s it logical/healthy to take in oral contraceptives on a regular basis even if one is not engaged in intercourse? There are several reasons to take oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) that have nothing to do with contraception. In that way, they can be considered medications to treat medical conditions, not contraceptives. In the case of women who bleed ...


7

I cannot speak of all possible gas medicines. But there is a class of them which is indeed low risk and over the counter. These are silicones, and they work in a purely mechanical way, not getting absorbed by the body. These silicones are the same stuff which you get in hair conditioner. They are quite inert chemically, and all they do is to change the ...


7

There are very few (but there are some) medications that need to be taken at very strict time intervals; early drugs for AIDS needed to be taken even in the middle of the night. No one expects four times a day to mean, literally, every 6 hours on the minute. The dose is calculated to cover that period of rest (sleep). To understand this, you need to ...


7

I presume you're taking the teleological view that symptoms are "good" and have a beneficial (if not fully understood) purpose, and therefore should not be messed with. That is a cognitive bias (a belief based on a construct, not objective evidence). Taking your example, I would ask you, what beneficial purpose does a runny/stuffy nose serve? Does it ...


7

You should keep an eye on the sleeping environment's temperature and restrict the amount of light entering the space you sleep in. Eye masks are a cost-effective solution to reducing excessive light from entering your eyes. And more generally speaking, your level of comfort when you enter the bed is a good indicator of how well you can rest in that space (...


7

My Grandmother died of a ischemic stroke (TIA followed by blockage) after weaning herself off of blood thinners because she didn't "need the medicine". Huge issue with his advice - the large majority of strokes are due to a clot or another form of vessel blockage. The rest caused by a hemorrhage (you'll have the worst headache of your life) while bleeding ...


7

If you are able to swallow pills but find it difficult, the following tips will help: take a sip of water before putting the pill in your mouth, and drink more water after putting the pill in as well do not lift your chin up as you try to swallow - this actually makes it harder. If anything, push your chin down into your chest a little while swallowing (...


7

Two key serum concentrations to know about in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics are the Minimum Effective Concentration (MEC) and Toxicity Concentration (TC). Some medications have stronger effects the higher the concentration, and other medications have the same effects regardless of the concentration as long as it is above the MEC. Note that the ...


6

As a medical professional I find this very important question. No, OTC drugs are not any safer than drugs needing prescriptions. They are more dangerous. The rationale for this statement is that always when patients are given a prescription, a detailed dosing guidelines are given to patient. Also physicians make sure that the prescripted drug is suitable to ...


6

Side effects frequency narrative words are defined by the council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences. See slide 10 of this presentation on the subject. As shown, "Very common" means equal to or greater than 10% [of the patients tested for that drug]. "Common" or "frequent" means more than 1% but less than 10%. "Uncommon" or "infrequent" ...


6

Before we discuss safety, I wouldn't agree that these two work 'equally well'. While ranitidine (a histamine 2-receptor antagonist - H2A) is a medicine with good efficacy, studies have shown that proton pump inhibitors - PPI (such as omeprasole) are more efficient. (1, 2) One of these studies concludes: Maintenance treatment with omeprazole (20 or 10 mg ...


6

In my experience most anesthesiologists use 5 hours as the minimum time necessary for the stomach to be sufficiently empty to make it safe to administer anesthesia. However, their criteria is quite stringent because the consequences of the stomach not actually being empty can be severe (aspiration of vomit). The National Health Service (UK) offers this ...


6

Caffeine Absorption Caffeine Capsules - 200mg - 84-120 minutes So maybe you took the caffeine, were already tired so you napped(2 hours or 120 minutes) just as it was kicking in full blown and then woke up a little later with the effects already in action, but not sleeping the full amount. Since the capsules take longer to kick in than liquids and ...


6

Your question is difficult to answer (but still interesting) because lupus is a highly heterogeneous condition which can present various symptoms and organ involvement. Choice of therapy will be tailored on the patient symptoms and his disease activity and severity. Here a broad overview of the current management strategies of lupus: The most frequent used ...


6

Are ibuprofen side effects something to worry about? Short answer: maybe. Longer answer: As with a lot of health questions, it depends on how they are being taken. If, for example, you hurt yourself playing a sport and want to take a painkiller for some short-term relief, ibuprofen probably won't do you much harm in the short term. On the other hand, if ...


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