8

What you are asking about is called bioavailability, which is the term for how much of a consumed substance is actually taken up by the body, and bioequivalence, which is about whether two products are used the same way in the body. Protein For protein, bioavailability is also called Biological Value (BV). The BV of an egg, for example is somewhere around ...


7

Well, you eat a number of things - protein, carbohydrates, fats, water, alcohol (at times), etc. Digestion begins in the mouth.The stomach muscles contract periodically, churning food to enhance digestion, breaking it into tiny particles called "chyme", which can indeed be an emulsion. The stomach doesn't act as a beaker; it has input and shakes things up. ...


7

You have no lack of gut bacteria, that much is very safe to say. Everyone has gut bacteria in spades. The gut bacteria that you do have may not be the optimal, but no one even knows what the optimal gut microbiome/microbiota is. The study of the effects of different populations of gut flora is in its infancy. The most intensive studies are being carried out ...


6

In my experience most anesthesiologists use 5 hours as the minimum time necessary for the stomach to be sufficiently empty to make it safe to administer anesthesia. However, their criteria is quite stringent because the consequences of the stomach not actually being empty can be severe (aspiration of vomit). The National Health Service (UK) offers this ...


6

Chronic mouth ulcers are relatively common, especially in young people. It's called apthous stomatitis, affects at least 20% of the population, and its natural course is one of eventual remission. By far, most people with apthous stomatitis are otherwise healthy. However, when someone presents with recurrent mouth ulcers, one should always inquire ...


6

Before we discuss safety, I wouldn't agree that these two work 'equally well'. While ranitidine (a histamine 2-receptor antagonist - H2A) is a medicine with good efficacy, studies have shown that proton pump inhibitors - PPI (such as omeprasole) are more efficient. (1, 2) One of these studies concludes: Maintenance treatment with omeprazole (20 or 10 mg ...


6

In principle: yes, the gut microbiome can be altered by external exposures. It is the large but and a large range of buts that follow. The newborns indeed get their initial "seeding" by birth, vaginally preferred and from the surface of the mother's body, and everyone and everything else in the surroundings. This is facilitated by two main factors: ...


5

WebMD has an interesting article on heartburn that states1 With gravity's help, a muscular valve called the lower esophageal sphincter, or LES, keeps stomach acid in the stomach. The LES is located where the esophagus meets the stomach -- below the rib cage and slightly left of center. Normally it opens to allow food into the stomach or to permit belching,...


5

During my last course called "Physical Examination of the Abdomen" (at medical school), we learned to palpate the abdominal aorta, which can be easily palpated in +/- lean patients. This book (freely available here http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK350/) "Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition"...


5

Findings There is a strong link between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), obesity, and Type 2 diabetes, recognized by multiple studies, for example this survey (1). This article (2) compares the consumption of SSBs with that of artificially sweetened beverages, and finds SSBs significantly worse. The study, however, is only a 10-week ...


5

The major dietary causes are not enough water and not enough fibre. (See the Risk Factors section of this Mayo Clinic article, which focuses on medical causes of constipation.) There's nothing complicated about mystery little factors in your food that combine to create a problem. If you eat only white rice and meat for a meal, with no vegetables, then you ...


5

Essential nutrient means any substance normally consumed as a constituent of food which is needed for growth and development and/or the maintenance of life and which cannot be synthesized in adequate amounts by the body (fao.org). Dietary fiber does not meet the criteria of being needed for life/growth, so, strictly speaking, it is not an essential nutrient....


5

Do some proteins survive human digestion? Yes. Prions are misfolded proteins with abnormal tertiary or quaternary structures. That grants them resistance (to some extent, at least) to proteases (1). Also, researchers believe that prions are able to replicate (2), by changing the structure of other proteins. Besides, It has been shown that small ...


4

As you mentioned in the side note, it really depends on the type of pill. Because there are chemical interactions between the food and the pill e.g. tetracycline and milk (tetracycline and calcium form complexes, thus inactivating the antibiotic). Generally the gastric pH is not so important for the drug uptake, as it happens in the small intestine. ...


4

Not sure if I answered this right: leaflady.org The system begins in the mouth, where the pH of saliva is 5.7 – 7.0. In the esophagus the pH is 7.0. The stomach pH is 1.5 – 3.0. In the Duodenum (upper part of the small intestine) pH is 4.0 – 5.0, and in the lower part of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum), pH 6.5 – 7.5 The reason for it: ...


4

Recent research results point to serious adverse health risks with the long term use of PPIs. These medicines increase the risk of heart disease, increase the risk of dementia and chronic kidney disease. These adverse effects have only recently been found. The association with heart disease used to be controversial, but recently obtained evidence points to a ...


4

Modern evidence-based medicine won't be able to fully answer your question, but there are indications that bacteria, or more exactly, the individual gut flora heavily influence your fecal weight or stool mass. E.g., in obstipated patients, other types of gut bacteria were found than in the control group, which still can't tell what is cause and what is ...


4

TLDR: The pathogenesis of eczema is multifactorial, but broadly follows a process of genetic (or epigenetic, in the case of the early gut microbiome) dysregulation relating to barrier integrity proteins like filaggrin with corresponding changes in the skin microenvironment's ceramide content. Following these changes in protein structure and function and ...


4

Is it true that one shouldn't take a bath after lunch? No. That's a long hold myth, nothing more. Although it might have all the pedagogical value of scare stories in general: So telling kids they might drown because they’ve just eaten is one way of getting them to listen to you. But from the evidence, it doesn’t appear to be backed up by science. Bathing ...


4

The study authors have released a statement on their institutional website that states: That neither the papers (http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2014/MD/C3MD00323J#!divAbstract, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24755204, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25960429, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26513708, and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih....


4

To get the most of your vitamins/minerals is quite simple, really. There are two types of soluble vitamins/minerals: Water-soluble Fat-soluble Absorption of water-soluble vitamins is quite easy, considering almost everything you eat/drink contains water. However, if you want maximum absorption rate for fat-soluble vitamins/minerals, you'll want to have ...


4

"Proton pump" is a broad category of proteins rather than a specific pump. The drugs called "proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)" to reduce stomach acid target a specific proton pump, the hydrogen/potassium ATPase. Of course, it is possible for drugs to have off-target effects at other proteins, especially similar ones. It is also possible for ...


4

First of all, if you found papers that suggest certain unexplored side effects, it means the research is underway and it can very well be that in the next years we get new information about how drugs work. Now to the actual question. From the pharmacokinetic point of view, PPIs only affect proton pumps of the stomach. The solution behind this is very simple: ...


4

Not allowed to comment, so just a partial answer from my part: Salmonella bacteria are commonly found in the excrements of birds and egg shells are usually contaminated with them, and even let them through to some extent. Therefore it is very important to boil the shell in advance. This should kill more than 99% of the Samonella bacteria found on the shell: ...


4

SE Health is not meant for personal advice. Only your doctor can answer this question based on an evaluation of your medical conditions, medications, allergies, and physical exam. What I can do is guide you toward the right resources. Make a list of these things you are on, a list of your medical history, a list of medication or food reactions you've had ...


4

Acidic environment in the stomach (ph ~2) is necessary for the activity of the enzyme pepsin, which partly digests proteins to peptides (NCBI). "Alkaline environment," which is not really alkaline but rather less acidic or nearly neutral with pH 6-7.4, (PubMed) is in the small intestine, where carbohydrates, fats and peptides are digested.


3

More stuff = More time The stomach has sensory capabilities that help determine the nutritional content of what it receives. This allows it to "taste" and decide what it needs to add to the "stirring pot" to get cooking. When the stomach receives traditional foods like carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, it adds protein-digesting enzymes such as pepsin and ...


3

The internet is overflowing with information regarding probiotics, and since these products are not registered as drugs and are widely sold as nutritional supplements, it might be hard to "separate the wheat from the chaff". I found this review which seems pretty comprehensive, and extracted some key concepts that may answer your question (they will be ...


3

If a person's body is in a low-metabolism state induced by starvation or restricted calorie intake, then an increase in the calorie intake will allow a raised metabolism. The natural lower limit to metabolism is death: if a person restricts calories too much, their metabolism drops lower and lower, until they develop various complications and then die. The ...


3

Laxatives can be of multiple types - from simple dietary roughage to some OTC mineral oils to prescription intestinal stimulants, there are simply a wide range of substances that can loosen stools and increase bowel movements. When should one take a laxative? I would say everyday. Dietary fibres are very good laxatives in normal individuals. Any diet ...


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