You seem to have misunderstood efficacy.
The 95% efficacy figure is a derived from a ratio of the number of cases in the control group (no vaccine) to the number of cases in the vaccine group. So, if both groups have 1000 people, perhaps 100 people in the control group become infected, while only 5 people in the vaccine group become infected. The vaccine ...
Two major reasons and one minor:
Herd immunity: The 95% for which the vaccine works are not only spared from the disease, but they also do not infect others and thus do not contribute to spreading the virus. In absence of hygienic countermeasures, an average person infected with Covid-19 infects about 3 others on average (basic reproductive rate). As this ...
Masks with exhalation valves are meant to be used to protect against particulates like sawdust or smoke. They must not be used in a pandemic because a large part of the usefulness of masks is preventing people who are infected and don't know it from spreading the virus. If you have an exhalation valve on your mask you're exposing everyone around you.
Is there a minimum percentage that will produce herd immunity?
Answer from the WHO (mirror):
The percentage of people who need to have antibodies in order to achieve herd immunity against a particular disease varies with each disease. For example, herd immunity against measles requires about 95% of a population to be vaccinated. The remaining 5% will be ...
You're looking at a non-peer-reviewed study with some sloppy conventions. There is not enough information contained in the paper to answer your questions about it.
You can assume what you want for many of your questions, but they are better directed at the authors, who have not indicated when they present means or medians, standard deviations or IQR, etc.
Could the case be made for the flu shot still being necessary if living conditions return to normal for the second half of the season
Yes, one argument would be that even with the current precautions, there are still currently half a million new covid cases daily, so it's preferable to have only one pandemic instead of two.
Favipiravir, the brand name of Avigan and was first developed in Japan. The official English translation of the PMDA's review report on Avigan's indication for influenza is here.
This review report has a very unusual logic to it. In summary;
It has no clinical significance for any flu tested.
However, it may work against the unknown flu, but they don't have ...
I think that the ivermectin is unlikely to be an effective antiviral vs. SARS-CoV-2 at recommended dosing.
Please find this preprint or this paper.
I think the key points are as follows;
The development of methods to realize enough concentrations of ivermectin in the lungs.
Is ivermectin still safe when the enough concentration is achieved in the lungs?