41 votes
Accepted

Why is thalidomide a current drug on the market?

Because leprosy and multiple myeloma are conditions for which other treatment options are limited. All treatments have side effects, some more debilitating than others. The trick with pharmacology is ...
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  • 526
19 votes
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Why do I feel shaky after only a small amount of caffeine?

Caffeine metabolism has to do with your genetic makeup. The slower you metabolize caffeine, the more effect it will have on you. The cause for the differences that people have in how fast they ...
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  • 7,717
19 votes

Can the immune system break down anything?

Actually, in the case of most drugs, it has nothing to do with the immune system per se. Generally, drugs are either chemically modified (often in the liver) to make them inert, or excreted (either in ...
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  • 732
14 votes

Can the immune system break down anything?

Certainly not. By definition, it cannot break down poisons (at least not quickly enough) to stop the body being harmed or killed. In addition, it can not break down (or "neutralize") many ...
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  • 2,093
9 votes
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What effect does long-term caffeine use have on memory?

There are actually quite a lot of studies pointing in all directions when it comes to memory and caffeine use. I wouldn't call it a closed case by any standard, although many sites hawk caffeine as a ...
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  • 1,838
7 votes
Accepted

Where does Ibuprofen inhibit COX-1, and what is its MoA?

I'm not clear why you're asking this as this information is readily available unless I missed something in your question. As for anticoagulant activity, my recollection is that if anything Ibuprofen ...
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7 votes
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Is it safe to drink Monster Energy (or any energy drink) after paracetamol?

The question appears to be motivated by headlines similar to this Mixing large doses of both acetaminophen painkiller and caffeine may increase risk of liver damage where it states WASHINGTON, Sept. ...
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6 votes

Urine analysis, the baking soda myth

Let us start by saying that it is not recommended to use home-made remedies off of some internet website, as the information may be inaccurate and misleading. You should always consult with a ...
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  • 1,598
6 votes
Accepted

"Mechanism of Action" (MOA) of medical drugs

Mechanism of Action (MOA) refers to the effects of a drug on a molecular level (receptors, chemical reactions) and Mode of Action (MoA) to the effects on a functional or tissue level, which are more ...
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  • 15.6k
5 votes
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Why was desvenlafaxine created, when venlafaxine metabolizes into it?

As you have refereed these medications are very similar in the sense that both antidepressants present a similar mechanism of action, consisting of inhibition of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. ...
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  • 473
5 votes

Why do I feel shaky after only a small amount of caffeine?

All caffeinated beverages like coffee (even decaffeinated) and soft drinks give short bursts of energy, temporarily raise blood pressure, and reduces blood flow to inactive limbs. Soon after you ...
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  • 4,697
4 votes
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Why some people experience no side effects from a drug?

Most drugs have wanted (main) and unwanted (side) effects, but neither of them are guaranteed. For example, aspirin may or may not relieve your headache and may or may not upset your stomach. The ...
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  • 15.6k
3 votes
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Are vitamin C and desloratadine better absorbed when taken shortly after eating?

Desloratadin is slightly soluble in water and very soluble in ethanol. While that would often indicate an at least slightly better if time-delayed absorption with food, this is apparently not the case:...
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  • 6,747
3 votes

What does primary, secondary and safety outcome of a drug study mean?

The primary endpoint is the thing you design your study around. You choose a sample size based on a statistical power analysis, making sure you have enough participants that you will be able to detect ...
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  • 12k
3 votes

what is the advantages (for patients) in delayed and extended release drugs?

To understand the advantages of Extended Release (ER) and Delayed Release (DR) formulations, the primary differences between them should be highlighted. Taken from "A Clinician's Guide to Oral ...
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  • 1,598
3 votes
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Caffeine clearance range/distribution and what determines it

There are many parameters to consider. The caffeine clearance is influenced by genetics, environmental factors, age, drug interactions, pregnancy, illnesses, day and time of day, habituation, what ...
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  • 6,747
3 votes
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Why isn't clorhexidine gluconate used among humans?

It is used among humans it's called: Hibiclens, Dyna-Hex, Ezy-tm, and Exidine As also stated by the user JohnP in a comment. And it works for: Cleaning the hands Before surgery or injections To ...
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  • 2,952
3 votes

Is ethanol toxic to liver, in the absence of ethanol metabolites resulting from inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH) enzyme?

Seems like you answered your own question. Lowering the threshold for intoxication lowers the threshold for toxicity. The likelihood of acute ethanol poisoning is increased by coadministering these ...
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2 votes

Can the immune system break down anything?

First of all, it's typically liver and the kidneys responsible for removing unwanted chemicals from the body, not the immune system. It should be noted that liver and kidneys have no "knowledge&...
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2 votes

How long should I wait to drive after taking a painkiller?

Unfortunately, there are no direct instructions in regards to this. "This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are ...
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  • 620
2 votes

Why some people experience no side effects from a drug?

One of the major things about heroin is that it is metabolized by the body as morphine and, if this person in the throes of heroin withdrawal were given medication like methadone, it couldn't be done ...
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2 votes
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Risks of Caffeine Powder

Caffeine comes from coffee beans, but it can also be synthesized in a laboratory. Caffeine has the same structure whether it’s in Coffee, Energy Drinks, Tea or pills/powder. Caffeine dosages should be ...
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  • 1,083
2 votes

Does L-theanine increase caffeine's half-life?

The mechanism of action of L-Theanine is not quite well understood and at some degree recent studies find themselves in contradictory with the results, nevertheless I think the essencial is this ...
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  • 473
2 votes

What properties of a topical medication determine what percent is systemically absorbed (bioavailability)?

I don't think that it is possible for anyone "at home" to calculate or otherwise accurately predict the absorption percent and therefore systemic effectiveness or side effect of a topically applied ...
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2 votes

What properties of a topical medication determine what percent is systemically absorbed (bioavailability)?

I would suggest the Noyes-Whitney equation: dW\dt = DA(C_s - C)\L wnere: dW\dt is the rate of dissolution. A is the surface area of the solid. C is the concentration of the solid in the bulk ...
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  • 1,523
2 votes
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Why are some tablets Telmisartan, Amlodipine and Hydrochlorothiazide bilayered and some are not?

There are good reasons why some drugs are bilayered. A company could decide to produce a bilayered drug formulation for the same drug if it's necessary to produce a formulation in which the drug in ...
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  • 186
1 vote
Accepted

Muscarinic receptors in bladder

According to this paper (full text freely available), "the somatic pudendal nerve stimulates striated muscle of the external urethral sphincter, mediated by ACh activating nicotinic (N) receptors&...
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  • 1,598
1 vote
Accepted

Dextroamphetamine vs Dextroamphetamine Salt Combo

In order to substitute lawfully, the 2 drugs must be bioequivalent and in the same dosage form. Therefore the 2 drugs not only must be chemically equivalent, but also therapeutically equivalent. In ...
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1 vote
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Higher doses of a drug being less effective?

Drugs may have different actions at different concentrations. So, for instance: Buprenorphine is 25 to 100 times more potent than morphine.18 Buprenorphine exhibits partial agonist behavior at the ...
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