40

Because leprosy and multiple myeloma are conditions for which other treatment options are limited. All treatments have side effects, some more debilitating than others. The trick with pharmacology is to balance the benefit of treatment with the hazards of the side effects. Take cancer chemotherapy. The drugs we use for cancer chemotherapy are horrible ...


19

Caffeine metabolism has to do with your genetic makeup. The slower you metabolize caffeine, the more effect it will have on you. The cause for the differences that people have in how fast they metabolize caffeine has to depend on the CYP1A2 gene. Variants of this gene can cause you to metabolize faster or slower. The C allele variant in the AHR gene, which ...


19

Actually, in the case of most drugs, it has nothing to do with the immune system per se. Generally, drugs are either chemically modified (often in the liver) to make them inert, or excreted (either in the urine or the stool) thus removing them from the body. When the liver or the kidneys are not working properly, drugs fail to be excreted or digested, ...


14

Certainly not. By definition, it cannot break down poisons (at least not quickly enough) to stop the body being harmed or killed. In addition, it can not break down (or "neutralize") many radioactive substances. A famous example of this was the murder of Alexander Litvinenko: On 1 November 2006, Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised. His ...


8

There are actually quite a lot of studies pointing in all directions when it comes to memory and caffeine use. I wouldn't call it a closed case by any standard, although many sites hawk caffeine as a great improver of memory, especially long-term memory. Some studies showing no effects of long-term caffeine use on memory: Hameleers et al. (2000): A large ...


7

I'm not clear why you're asking this as this information is readily available unless I missed something in your question. As for anticoagulant activity, my recollection is that if anything Ibuprofen is one of the worse NSAIDs in terms of cardiovascular side effects being prothrombotic, though not as bad as Diclofenac. The main mechanism of action of ...


7

The question appears to be motivated by headlines similar to this Mixing large doses of both acetaminophen painkiller and caffeine may increase risk of liver damage where it states WASHINGTON, Sept. 26 2007 — Consuming large amounts of caffeine while taking acetaminophen, one of the most widely used painkillers in the United States, could potentially cause ...


6

Mechanism of Action (MOA) refers to the effects of a drug on a molecular level (receptors, chemical reactions) and Mode of Action (MoA) to the effects on a functional or tissue level, which are more observable. So, actually, in most cases, we know how a drug works, because we can see its effects, but we may not know "how exactly" it works. Wikipedia has ...


6

Let us start by saying that it is not recommended to use home-made remedies off of some internet website, as the information may be inaccurate and misleading. You should always consult with a healthcare professional in order to avoid adverse outcomes. The concept of manipulating urine pH in order to accelerate the excretion of certain drugs is well-known. ...


5

All caffeinated beverages like coffee (even decaffeinated) and soft drinks give short bursts of energy, temporarily raise blood pressure, and reduces blood flow to inactive limbs. Soon after you drink coffee (containing caffeine), it’s absorbed through the small intestine and dissolved into the bloodstream and it’s able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier ...


4

Most drugs have wanted (main) and unwanted (side) effects, but neither of them are guaranteed. For example, aspirin may or may not relieve your headache and may or may not upset your stomach. The lists of drug side effects base on decades of studies and consumers' reports, such as FDA (US), YellowCard (UK), Adreports (EU) and Medsafe (NZ), but if, let's say,...


3

To understand the advantages of Extended Release (ER) and Delayed Release (DR) formulations, the primary differences between them should be highlighted. Taken from "A Clinician's Guide to Oral Extended-Release Drug Delivery Systems in Epilepsy" (italics are mine): Delayed-Release (DR) Formulations. The US Pharmacopeia (USP) defines DR as a dosage ...


3

There are many parameters to consider. The caffeine clearance is influenced by genetics, environmental factors, age, drug interactions, pregnancy, illnesses, day and time of day, habituation, what species you look at, etc. We do not have a complete picture in terms of perfect predictability. But we have quite a few individual lines of cause and effect ...


3

Desloratadin is slightly soluble in water and very soluble in ethanol. While that would often indicate an at least slightly better if time-delayed absorption with food, this is apparently not the case: Following oral administration of desloratadine 5 mg once daily for 10 days to normal healthy volunteers, the mean time to maximum plasma concentrations (Tmax)...


3

It is used among humans it's called: Hibiclens, Dyna-Hex, Ezy-tm, and Exidine As also stated by the user JohnP in a comment. And it works for: Cleaning the hands Before surgery or injections To cleanse skin or wounds And as a oral rinse So there is no exception it is used for humans. But you are right it is also used for animals.


2

First of all, it's typically liver and the kidneys responsible for removing unwanted chemicals from the body, not the immune system. It should be noted that liver and kidneys have no "knowledge" which chemical is "bad" and which is "good". They have evolved to let some chemicals pass, react some chemicals etc. But there is ...


2

Unfortunately, there are no direct instructions in regards to this. "This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely." WebMD If you have confidence that you feel alert, and capable of completing a task that requires your full-...


2

One of the major things about heroin is that it is metabolized by the body as morphine and, if this person in the throes of heroin withdrawal were given medication like methadone, it couldn't be done without medical supervision as these are both really powerful drugs. Did the article say anything about the patient's daily ANYTHING? With the assistance of ...


2

Caffeine comes from coffee beans, but it can also be synthesized in a laboratory. Caffeine has the same structure whether it’s in Coffee, Energy Drinks, Tea or pills/powder. Caffeine dosages should be tailored to individuals. If you are new to caffeine supplements then the usual recommended start is with a 100mg dose (see warning below). Typically, 200mg of ...


2

I don't think that it is possible for anyone "at home" to calculate or otherwise accurately predict the absorption percent and therefore systemic effectiveness or side effect of a topically applied drug from its physio-chemical properties, but it is possible to measure these parameters for every single drug during its development. Drug and skin factors (...


2

I would suggest the Noyes-Whitney equation: dW\dt = DA(C_s - C)\L wnere: dW\dt is the rate of dissolution. A is the surface area of the solid. C is the concentration of the solid in the bulk dissolution medium. C_s is the concentration of the solid in the diffusion layer surrounding the solid. D is the diffusion coefficient. L is the diffusion layer ...


1

In order to substitute lawfully, the 2 drugs must be bioequivalent and in the same dosage form. Therefore the 2 drugs not only must be chemically equivalent, but also therapeutically equivalent. In your situation, dextroamphetamine and dextroamphetamine salts combo are 2 different drugs. The former is a single ingredient product while the latter is a ...


1

Drugs may have different actions at different concentrations. So, for instance: Buprenorphine is 25 to 100 times more potent than morphine.18 Buprenorphine exhibits partial agonist behavior at the mu-receptor and exhibits antagonist behavior at the kappa-receptor. Buprenorphine has a strong affinity for the mu-receptor causing tight binding and therefore ...


1

This is the best answer I could find (from a page with more discussion): In a mythical "normal" human, around one third of the T4 is converted to T3. So you could argue that T3 is "three times as strong as T4". When taking tablets, for example, changing from T4 only to mixed T3 and T4, it is common to estimate on the basis of T4 being one ...


1

Any drug taken by mouth are being absorbed by the digestive system where a large amount may be destroyed by metabolic enzymes (first-pass metabolism) and enters the hepatic portal system. Then it's carried through the portal vein into the liver to be absorbed into the bloodstream and excrete the waste through bile. Some other bypass the liver, entering the ...


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