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One of the greatest benefits of MRI scans is their safety. Unlike PET, X-ray, CT and most other scans, MRIs use the properties of body tissues in magnetic fields to produce an image. The MRI machine produces a powerful magnetic field which interacts with body tissues to produce radio waves, which are in turn interpreted by a computer to determine the ...


29

I think a missing bit of information that might help you get a better sense of this practice is: steroids are miracle drugs. OK, that was in jest - no miracles here. Truth be told, though, if there is a single class of drugs that has added more quality-adjusted life-years to human history than any other, steroids must be competing with just a few ...


28

While they're sometimes confused by the public, X-Ray CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) work by entirely different priniciples. X-Ray radiation is harmful, and any unnecessary exposure should be limited. MRI works by putting the subject into a very strong magnetic field and using radiowaves to excite specific nuclei. The ...


20

Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant. Drinking under-age increases alcohol risks in later life. Research shows the brain keeps developing well into the twenties, during which time it continues to establish important communication connections and further refines its function and studies show that young people who ...


11

Summary The primary risk of excessive water intake is hyponatremia (low sodium level in the blood). While a healthy person who drinks 6-8 liters of water daily is unlikely to suffer significant hyponatremia, people who drink this much often have psychiatric illness that is accompanied by poorly understood hormonal changes that may indeed cause ...


10

The color, odor and consistency of urine can be differ and can reveal what you've been eating, how much drinking and what diseases you have, so change of the color is usually something completely normal. All substances circulating in your body (including bacteria, yeast, excess protein/sugar can make their way there. It's an important part of your body's ...


10

Smoking during pregnancy is bad. Really bad. It will be damaging to the baby, and possibly even to the mother. Firstly, smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriages. It can also cause premature birth, which can lead to many health complications, such as low weight, feeding difficulties, and breathing problems. A mother who smokes while ...


9

Smoking during pregnancy is related to many effects on health and it increases the risk in children as well. Even if the mother doesn't smoke, the risk increases significantly with higher amount of passive/secondhand smoking. These health risks include: on ongoing pregnancy: premature rupture of membranes, placental abruption (the fetus can be put in ...


9

The main energy emissions (i.e. ways of affecting its surroundings) of a laptop computer are— Sound: Unless your laptop has extravagant bass speakers that can physically rattle your organs hard enough to be painful, this will have no effect. Heat: A laptop can run quite hot, and heating the testes can be used as a method of contraception, as the ideal ...


7

The mercury found in a thermometer is elemental mercury. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. However, the greatest problem with it is that, apart from ingestion, there can be another route of exposure without noticing. Elemental mercury easily evaporates on room temperature, and these vapours can be inhaled. In this form Hg is liposoluble ...


7

A GUIDELINE ON SUMMARY OF PRODUCT [pharmaceuticals] CHARACTERISTICS (EUROPEAN COMMISSION, 2009) In exceptional cases, if a frequency cannot be estimated from the available data, an additional category frequency ‘not known’ may be used. Sometimes, knowing the number of cases of a drug side effects in a certain group of users is not enough to estimate ...


6

High levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be harmful which can develop physical and mental defects in a fetus. When you drink, alcohol passes from your blood through placenta to a baby and can stunt fetal growth, facial deformities, damage neurons and brain structures which can result in intellectual disability and also cause other physical ...


6

A person should undergo Xrays as often an they are necessary, because the risk-to-benefit ratio is usually very far in favor of the benefit. As an example of this idea of risk-to-benefit ratio, lets take getting into a car. There is always a risk to getting into a car. After all, they move quickly, slide on slippery roads, and hurl towards (and potentially ...


6

This is a very good question. Simply put: among doctors we call them wonder drugs or life saving drugs. In a number of emergencies, such as severe drug reactions, life-threatening asthma or allergies, or inflammatory conditions (such as your example of arthritis), no other drugs act like steroids. They act quickly and effectively, reducing inflammation and ...


6

This question arises from your (correct) understanding that administration of exogenous (i.e. not produced by the body) glucocorticoids (GCs) can suppress the body’s ability to produce its own GCs in the adrenal glands. In order to understand the answer, a little background is necessary. Why does the body become unable to produce cortisone? As in many ...


6

It can be trusted as safe as much as the regulations that it comes under can be trusted to make it safe and producers following said regulations. Materials and articles that come into contact with food must comply with the rules laid down by European Regulation 1935/2004. The regulation requires that adhesives used in food packaging must not: - affect ...


6

Side effects frequency narrative words are defined by the council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences. See slide 10 of this presentation on the subject. As shown, "Very common" means equal to or greater than 10% [of the patients tested for that drug]. "Common" or "frequent" means more than 1% but less than 10%. "Uncommon" or "infrequent" ...


5

Your question took me a while to research; it goes beyond basic medicine and delves into biochemistry, pharmacology, and physiology. The short answer is: Yes! It can; however, as you will see in the studies that are linked, it's dose dependent. From what I found, the primary culprit of drug interactions in grapefruit juice lies in naringenin; however, ...


5

One’s mental state has a major effect on bowel function. In fact, there is a high correlation between IBS and stress. Given the high levels of anxiety and stress commonly seen in patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, evidence suggests that the syndrome may be linked to a disruption of the stress system. The stress response in the body involves the ...


5

Couldn't find any articles directly looking at effervescent tablets and dental problems, so I took a more broad look and searched for citric acid's effect on teeth. The combination of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate are routinely used in effervescent tablets designed for human consumption (according to Wikipedia ;). Citric acid is commonly found in many ...


5

The anti-biotic could possibly be having an antidiuretic effect. This reduces the amount of water in urine, and so the natural yellow hue is intensified. There is a definition of an antidiuretic at Wikipedia. The key element of the body's natural ability to retain urine is Vasopressin. There are natural remedies for both urine retention and lack of urine ...


5

what is the medically advised time between taking an antidepressant and coffee? There is no such time, and there cannot be. All we know is that there are negative consequences when you take them together. We know that there are must be spacing schedules when the consequences must be milder than with other schedules. But we have neither the data nor the ...


5

In long term studies, the effects have been mixed but mild. In hemodialysis patients, after about six months - melatonin no longer seemed to have physiologic effects but could still be detected at elevated levels in salivary samples suggesting the body adapted to it. Long term (six months) melatonin in mice improved spatial learning and memory and also ...


5

Using any medication, including ibuprofen, in doses higher than recommended, is very unwise. There is a reason that patient information leaflets exist, and that health professionals insist that the patients read and understand these leaflets (and ask questions when necessary) prior to consumption. First of all, ibuprofen is a non-steroid anti-inflamatory ...


5

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme that protects red blood cell against oxidative damage. G6PD deficiency is one the most common genetic disorders. Most of the patients with G6PD deficiency remain clinically asymptomatic. However they are at increased risk of developing acute haemolytic anemia (AHA) in the presence of oxidative agents, ...


5

Actually lack of sleep leads to weight gain and not weight loss. Losing out on sleep creates a viscous cycle in your body, making you more prone to various factors contributing to weight gain. “The more sleep-deprived you are, the higher your levels of the stress hormone cortisol, which increases your appetite,”. When you’re stressed, your body tries to ...


5

Most drugs have wanted (main) and unwanted (side) effects, but neither of them are guaranteed. For example, aspirin may or may not relieve your headache and may or may not upset your stomach. The lists of drug side effects base on decades of studies and consumers' reports, such as FDA (US), YellowCard (UK), Adreports (EU) and Medsafe (NZ), but if, let's say,...


5

Let's look up Ibuprofen up in a reliable source. We can read there that: Cardiovascular Risk Increased risk of serious (sometimes fatal) cardiovascular thrombotic events (e.g., MI, stroke). Risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use. (See Cardiovascular Thrombotic Effects under Cautions.) Contraindicated in the setting ...


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