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The short answer is that Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, a disease that is caused by the body's own immune system attacking and destroying insulin-producing cells, called beta cells (which are located in the islets of Langerhans).1 What, exactly, kicks off this autoimmune response is as yet unclear. Some options are genes, and different components ...


6

Being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (DM1) at the age of 54 is very rare. It's usually diagnosed in children or teenagers and used to even be called 'juvenile diabetes' because of that. The reason it's usually diagnosed this early is because it comes from the body's inability to produce insulin in the pancreas after the immune system has destroyed these ...


5

It appears that melatonin decreases blood pressure in a way that occurs nocturnally in normal persons. Interestingly, it is being investigated as a possible anti-hypertensive in Type 2 diabetics. It doesn't seem to have any undesirable side effects, making it an ideal anti-hypertensive. In patients with diabetes the mean BP during sleep was lower on ...


4

Introduction Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high. There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin (10% of all diabetes, often inherited/genetic) Type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't ...


3

Actually, ketoacidosis could occur also in Type 2 Diabetes. It's not common, but it's a possibility and should not be not omitted. In Type 2 Diabetes the insulin secretion is available but insufficient to meet the glucose needs. However, generally, can prevent sustained hyperglycemic states that could lead to ketoacidosis. When DKA occurs in patients ...


3

If you know your insulin-to-carb ratio and your correction factor (how much your blood sugar drops per unit of insulin), you should be able to calculate how much you should have had fairly simply – at least in theory. Assuming that your blood sugar would have remained level had you not eaten (which will not usually be the case in real life), you just ...


3

It is true that insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose, amino acids (from proteins) and fatty acids into the cells (PubMed, 2011: "Insulin effects in muscle and adipose tissue"). Diabetes.co.uk: Carbohydrates tend to be the largest factor accounting for changes in blood sugar. It’s worth noting that proteins can also affect sugar levels as well. ...


2

The pump MiniMed 640G and the Contour Next Link 2.4 uses the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol with a proprietary data format. It uses the following operating frequencies 2420 MHz, 2435 MHz, 2450 MHz, 2465 MHz, 2480 MHz with a 5 MHz Bandwidth. There is yet no evidence of the compatibility of the MiniMed Connect with the 640g. If you're interesting in the ...


2

The manufacturer touts its ability to transmit data to its own apps via Bluetooth, so I'd say the answer is yes. The MiniMed Connect App for iOS is compatible for devices running iOS 8 and iOS 9 with Bluetooth® . The MiniMed Connect App for OS is compatible for devices running Android™5.0/5.1.1/5.1.2 (Lollipop) and Android™ 6.0/6.0.1/6.0.2 (...


2

Normally, the approach to the diet is a bit mathematic thanks to the Carbohydrate Counting. The Insulin Sensitivity Factor(ISF) and the Insulin-Carbohydrate(I:C) ratio help to calculate the right amount of Insulin needed for each meal. If needed the ISF it's helpful the make some corrections to the Blood Sugar level, even before the meal, to be added to the ...


2

You pretty much answered your questions, except for 5 and 6. 1) Diabetes is a serious disease, so it needs to be diagnosed accurately and complications detected early (some people will already have complications at the time of first diagnosis). All this requires investigations for which a primary doctor doesn't have equipment/experience and time. Also, from ...


2

1) Blood glucose level 64 mmol/L is possible. From a case (a 16-years-old girl with diabetes type 1) report article Severe degree of hyperglycaemia: insights from integrative physiology (OJM, 2002): The physicians seeking the consultation defined the starting point, the very high blood sugar level of 70 mmol/l (1260 mg/dl). (^ ^ From the context it's ...


2

The Mayo Clinic page shows only some antidiabetic drugs; they just didn't mentioned few more as you did. A combination therapy for diabetes type 2 (UpToDate) is a combination of at least 2 oral antidiabetic drugs, or a combination of one or more oral antidiabetic drugs with insulin. The term is used when the therapy is planned as combined and not when it ...


2

The answer to this question is for classification as Type 1 or Type 2 in adults (age >20 years) known (or believed) to have diabetes. Distinguishing Type 1 from Type 2 diabetes in children (age < 20 years) would require a different approach and has a separate literature. Here are citations and links to three publications that describe the use “...


1

American Diabetes Association has a comprehensive list of complications of diabetes type 1 and 2 (most complications can occur in both types). Here are some complications that are quite typical, but not all are specific for diabetes: Acanthosis nigricans Diabetic dermopathy Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum Eruptive xanthomatosis Diabetic retinopathy ...


1

I want to add a supplementary answer which provides a useful infographic produced by the British Medical Journal and based on the diabetes guideline issued by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). The guide shows the advisable combinations of oral medication in type 2 diabetes (there are a few possible combinations) and when to ...


1

Conditions listed in the Shrimp list are direct complications of diabetes type 2. For example, "coronary artery disease" results from 2 pathological processes in diabetes type 2 (hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia). Coronary artery disease can result in congestive heart failure, but this is now a complication of coronary heart disease, not diabetes 2. Angina ...


1

To get a better control of diabetes, the best option is to use an Insulin Pump with a Continuos Glucose Monitor. (CGM) The Insulin Pump allows you to absume Insulin without using needles, having a fully customizable Basal Profile and many other functionalities. The CGM keeps your Blood Sugar under control in a continuos way, knowing the trend of it ...


1

No, certain cells like skeletal muscle cells (during exercise), liver cells, red blood cells and the brain do not need insulin for glucose uptake. During exercise, the glucose uptake by muscles is increased so glucose level in the blood drops down. Thus, less (or no) insulin is needed during exercise. For more details, I found useful information in a ...


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