20

In medical documentation, being an X-ray, MRI, description of physical examination or other, the sides "right" and "left" should be always used as they appear in your body. So, the "left neural foramen" is on your left-hand side. Below is an X-ray image of the chest cavity. You can see the big letter "L" and all the "left" terms on the right side of the ...


13

Ibuprofen and Aspirin are both non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These NSAIDs can be differentiated into selective NSAIDs and non-selective NSAIDs. Non-selective NSAIDs such as Ibuprofen and Aspirin are both COX-1 [Cyclooxygenase-1, also known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS-1)] and COX-2 inhibitors [Cyclooxygenase-2 ...


11

Top quality resources for videos will be found at sites from surgical academies, which often offer free or low-price subscriptions to students/residents/trainees: American College of Surgeons curriculum for residents at https://cine-med.com/acsonline/ American College of Surgeons Journal at https://www.journalacs.org/featuredvideo Journal of Trauma and ...


10

Please note that the pain scale is usually used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment. As long as the pain is responding to treatment, there need not be objectivity per se. Was it a '7' on arrival? is it a '2' after a couple of doses of an analgesic? (if so, Great! Can we safely get it to a '1' or '0'? Did it spike to a '5' today? Why might that be? Is ...


9

It's so that the correct dosage of medication to be administered can be drawn in the syringe and to get rid of any air bubbles incidentally drawn. The syringe has milliliter (and fractions thereof) markers on the barrel. In order to get the right volume of medication from the vial/ampule, one has to get rid of any air bubbles incidentally drawn in. By ...


8

What guarantees that the doctor is willing to help, especially if they are hired in a public system? Nothing In the end, the doctor with the perfect resume could end up killing you because for whatever reason. However, you have this issue with any group of humans. How do you know your fellow teammate in sports will not choke you? How do you know your ...


8

Initially surgeons did wear white in the operating theater, but there were two large problems with this. Firstly, under the bright lights, the white reflects too much light making an inordinate amount of glare making it difficult to see. Secondly, the white cloth highlighted the red blood which many people found objectionable. As a result, most operating ...


7

Note: I can give you a breakdown of the CURRENT medical system in the US. Naming and training used to be different some decades ago, when the term GP was more broadly applied, but I am less familiar with its history. Also note that Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants are also often Primary Care Providers. Their training, licensing, and ability to ...


7

I presume you're taking the teleological view that symptoms are "good" and have a beneficial (if not fully understood) purpose, and therefore should not be messed with. That is a cognitive bias (a belief based on a construct, not objective evidence). Taking your example, I would ask you, what beneficial purpose does a runny/stuffy nose serve? Does it ...


7

To build off of what JohnP said, scientific evidence has a hierarchy of reliability. Some types of papers, by their very nature, are more academically rigorous and likely to lead you to the truth. Randomized controlled double-blind trials and meta-analyses are at the top of the hierarchy. These studies often have thousands of participants and are set up to ...


6

Side effects frequency narrative words are defined by the council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences. See slide 10 of this presentation on the subject. As shown, "Very common" means equal to or greater than 10% [of the patients tested for that drug]. "Common" or "frequent" means more than 1% but less than 10%. "Uncommon" or "infrequent" ...


6

I'm not familiar with using citrate or EDTA as an anticoagulant in medical care (i.e. as a drug). However, it is often used in blood sampling tubes so that the blood sample does not clot. As to their difference, EDTA works irreversibly while citrate is reversible. EDTA is used more often most notably to get the complete blood count. Citrate is mostly used ...


5

As @LangLangC pointed out, bis in die is Latin for twice a day. However, usually drugs come with a prescription information a bit more elaborate, and twice a day is more commonly abbreviated as B.I.D. This example and further examples can be found here. In this example, p.o. (per os, latin for through the mouth) means oral consumption, and b.i.d (bis in ...


5

MDs and DOs are both physicians. Both learn at least a core medical curriculum, then take exams demonstrating that level of knowledge (USMLE vs COMLEX). Both can apply for residencies for any specialty, and they take the exact same specialty boards in order to practice medicine. Both can go into research or any other branch of medical science, with or ...


5

Primary Care Primary Care Physician (General Practitioner) In the USA: primary care specialties include Family Medicine (all ages), Internal Medicine (adults), Pediatrics (children). Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants are also primary care providers who work alongside physicians. This is often the best place to start, as they are well-versed in ...


5

The Numerical Rating Scale (NRS - 11) may be the easiest one to relate to. Between ranges can be looked at pretty objectively, but within ranges is more subjective. Rating: Pain Level 0: No Pain 1 – 3: Mild Pain (nagging, annoying, interfering little with ADLs) 4 – 6: Moderate Pain (interferes significantly with ADLs) 7 – 10: Severe Pain (disabling; ...


5

Simple answer: Because that is just the medication guidelines. Some medications, because of onset of actions, effect of stomach acid, upsetting stomach and other factors need to be taken on or off a full stomach. The doctors know this, because there is evidence based practice proving what works the best. To make sure the meds work best for you it is best to ...


5

It is the information leaflet, which usually comes with all drugs, that should tell you to take them with or without food. For one/few time use, it can be better to take them on an empty stomach or with water because they will pass through it quicker and will be absorbed quicker, so they will likely act quicker and stronger (PubMed Central). Examples: ...


5

"Studies of one" are also known as case studies, N-of-1 studies or case reports. I will refer to them below as case reports, for simplicity. They vary in quality just like any other type of studies. Case reports have a place in biomedical research and can often be very valuable, widely cited and/or otherwise influential. Double-blind randomized controlled ...


5

Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, itchy skin condition that is very common in children but may occur at any age. It is also known as eczema and atopic eczema and was formerly known as Besnier prurigo. It is the most common form of dermatitis. Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis is complex and ...


4

Each state should have their own licensing board, that may or may not have a search function to verify a licensure. As an experiment, I went to the Texas website and entered the name of a nurse practitioner that I gathered off of the internet, and it came back with a verification of their initial licensure, how long it was good for, and the recognized level ...


4

Because that's the way to measure blood pressure The German guidelines for treating hypertonia are to always measure bilateral. (German Source Only) As @DoctorWhom pointed out in the comments, atherosclerosis1 and ascending aortic dissection2 can lead to difference in the blood pressure. Furthermore, as a study fairly recently conducted (2012) found, not ...


4

Introducing Energy States Around an atom, there are 7 different electron shells1. When the electrons receive the necessary amount of energy, they jump from one state to another (called "ground state" and "excited state"), as shown in the image below: The figure (generated by POV-Ray) shows excitations of copper 3d orbitals on the CuO2-plane of a high Tc ...


4

Chemical reactions are slowed down at lower temperatures; refrigeration can increase the shelf-life of medicines that would not last long enough at room temperature. Refrigeration could be important for the active ingredient or for the formulation as a whole. Note that refrigeration can also be a problem for some formulations, so it's important to follow ...


4

It is indeed important to differentiate the drug in question and the individual and the intention for using the drug and the way it is taken, temporally. Painkillers – or analgesics – come in a wide variety, be that in the form of opioids, cannabinoids, NSAIDs, ion-channel_modulators, myorelaxants or uncategorised drugs like ketamine. Not all are usually ...


4

"Uppers" and "downers" are colloquial terms for drugs with stimulant effects versus depressive effects, respectively. The primary acute health concern with either (i.e., what tends to kill people in an overdose) is overstimulation or oversuppression of the cardiovascular/respiratory systems. One recreational combination of upper/downer is a "speedball" of ...


4

There is a site called Anatomy Stuff which specialize in providing replications of the human body. In particular, they have a section called Anatomy Models, which has a range of human-esque models, but these are a bit obsolete these days! Clincal Skills Training, another of their sections, has life-like human manikins that can be used to mimic real people.


4

Homeopathy isn't a scientific thing, and sometimes it is very easily refuted https://www.livescience.com/31977-homeopathy.html homepathic "remedies" are compounds that are so diluted that there is a chance that the active molecule will appear only if the solution is as big as the solar system. There is no research that discovered how it works, so it is ...


3

This doesn't look like a Germany only problem to me. The UK has this problem, the US… This is a classical textbook resource allocation problem. Our ideologues have a theriac like cure-all for this. Their religion calls this supreme being "the market". Patients with a regular source of care used the emergency department more appropriately than did ...


3

Fractures would be a good reason to be fully immobilized in a cast (after the first 5-10 days in a splint to allow swelling to go down) but they usually take at least 4-6 weeks to heal enough to remove a cast/brace (one sources says maybe 3 for a minor fracture in a finger). For your character to have around 2 weeks of immobilization, a few ideas: ...


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