6

The NEJM editorial that accompanied that issue says: One antiviral-drug candidate is a combination of the HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir. Lopinavir, which acts against the viral 3CL protease, has modest antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. A quick search shows that SARS-CoV 3CL protease was the topic of some more in-depth investigations, ...


4

First of all, if you found papers that suggest certain unexplored side effects, it means the research is underway and it can very well be that in the next years we get new information about how drugs work. Now to the actual question. From the pharmacokinetic point of view, PPIs only affect proton pumps of the stomach. The solution behind this is very simple: ...


4

"Proton pump" is a broad category of proteins rather than a specific pump. The drugs called "proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)" to reduce stomach acid target a specific proton pump, the hydrogen/potassium ATPase. Of course, it is possible for drugs to have off-target effects at other proteins, especially similar ones. It is also possible for ...


4

Yes, activated Charcoal (AC) can be given rectally. Although this is a veterinary journal, I doubt the principles are different and according to this article it's given in a liquid slurry, much like oral administration: Enemas also have been used to decrease the colonic bacterial numbers and substrates. The following types of enemas have been recommended: • ...


4

Dexamethasone and other steroids have well-documented psychological effects. There are so many citations available that it's not necessary to pick one in particular. The definition of "psychoactive" as used in medicine is "affecting the mind or behavior." Therefore, his usage was correct.


3

This type of phenomenon will almost always be seen with drugs that target foreign pathogens capable of change, i.e., bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, etc. In addition to antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral and antifungal medications can also decrease in effectiveness overtime as the pathogens develop resistance mechanisms. For instance, HIV ...


3

According to UpToDate: At levels of therapeutic anticoagulation, VKAs (vitamin K antagonists) typically cause only mild prolongation (or do not prolong) the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and they do not prolong the anti-factor Xa activity level, a test typically used to measure the effect of heparin or direct oral factor Xa inhibitors I ...


3

Such a tracker is available on the Milken Institute website. It currently lists 52 vaccine candidates and 79 treatment candidates. Update: one month later (May 4th) it lists 123 vaccine candidates and 199 potential treatments. Incredible! Update #2: there are now 202 vaccine candidates and 316 potential treatments, as of August 8th


3

I think you're asking about trials See the clinical trials database


3

It appears that there is indeed an association between pharmacokinetics and development of addiction to psychostimulant drugs. First, as a general note, it should be noted that pharmacokinetics govern a drug's plasma level, while pharmacodynamics govern the body's response to the drug (i.e. to the drug's plasma level), and in this case, addiction may be ...


2

Probably because it was only available from one company (Taractan from Roche) and it was no longer successful on the market, so the company discontinued it, apparently in 1997: Hoffman-LaRoche, Inc., et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of 11 New Drug Applications [...] EFFECTIVE DATE: February 10, 1997. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The holders of the applications ...


2

As of August 24, 2020, the jury is out on your question--Can the replication and transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) virus in humans be inhibited in a similar way by the use of oseltamivir? It could be answered definitively only in a randomized trial. The company that manufactures Tamiflu—the branded version of oseltamivir--seems not to consider ...


2

This drug is not one of the candidates for the WHO mega study "Solidarity" nor do I see it in any other prospective trial. Without trial data your question can not be answered. WHO and partners are organizing a study to compare untested treatments throughout several countries. “This large, international study is designed to generate the robust data we ...


2

There are no specific proven drug treatments for Covid-19 disease but quite a few claims based on very limited experience which is why the WHO is arranging a mega trial called SOLIDARITY to test 4 protocols. Remdesivir, an anti-Ebola drug, a RNA polymerase inhibitor Hydroxychloroquine - a drug used in SLE/Rheumatoid arthritis that may have some ACE2 ...


2

The problem appears to be that the SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to the ACE2 receptor and carries the receptor into the cell where the RNA of the virus is then released. Because the cell now lacks ACE2 surface receptors this leads to intracellular damage due to lack of inhibition of AT1-R in the Renin Angiotensin System. The cells that are damaged in the lung ...


2

As far as treatments are concerned, there is https://www.covid-trials.org/. It allows you to filter results by trial status (completed, recruiting, etc.), treatment and location. It also has links to trial results (where available) and registry information. It does not have information on vaccine candidates, though. Reference: Thorlund A, Dron L, Park J, et ...


2

It appears that Vitamin D oil drops are just as effective as tablets. Well they have the oil which helps the Vitamin D absorb since D is fat soluble I guess. https://vitamindwiki.com/tiki-download_wiki_attachment.php?attId=13764&download=y We compared the effectiveness of tablets versus oil in raising S-25-hydroxyvitaminD(S-25-OHD) in plasma by re-...


2

I think you're missing the point still. The "benefit" column in that table is about benefits of the modification, not the drug. A drug modified to prevent release in vitro (kind of a weird phrasing..) is designed to require an additional processing step that occurs when the drug is taken normally (often orally), but not when it is abused (like ground up and ...


2

Yes. Prevents it too. 100% in some studies, but not others, but then, the vaccines aren't proven stop it 100%, and ivermectin's safety profile is far superior. What's established/true has changed a lot since this question was asked and initially answered. CHEST Does CHEST only publish results of INvalid clinical evidence? No. It's v. reputable. Yes, this ...


2

There is a paper which suggest that ivermectin is unlikely to be an effective antiviral vs. SARS-CoV-2 at recommended dosing. Please find this preprint or this paper. This paper has the following description. Recently, an article by Caly et al. reported that ivermectin inhibited severe acute respiratory syndrome‐coronavirus (SARS‐CoV‐2) in vitro causing ...


2

This in-vitro study reveals exciting data regarding Ivermectin, which is typically used for treatment of scabies. I was unable to find any clinical data to support use of Ivermectin for COVID-19. But this study definitely supports starting a clinical trial given the widespread availability of Ivermectin. Overall ivermectin is well-tolerated in both ...


2

Definitive manuals, or textbooks for drug interactions tend not to be published on their own any longer, due to their need to be constantly updated, and having been superseded by better ways to search for the information required, in a digital format. OR - they are tremendously expensive, like this. Otherwise, drug interactions and adverse reactions are ...


2

mirtazapine has a somewhat complex pharmacodynamic's: acts as an antagonist of the presynaptic alpha-2 autoreceptor and increases the release of both norepinephrine and seratonin; it is an antagonist of the 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors; and it acts as a potent H1 antagonist, which is associated with the sedative effects of the drug. olanzapine, is a second-...


2

The answer to this question lies within the clinical settings methadone and buprenorphine/naloxone are used in, and the forms in which they are provided to users as a result of how they are absorbed. Methadone is provided by specially licensed clinics that require patients to come in daily to clinic to take methadone under direct observation. For the first ...


2

The nephrologist is right, in toxicology we learn that the theory behind a methanol intoxication is due to the fact that methanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to formaldehyde and then aldehyde dehydrogenase metabolizes formaldehyde into formic acid. The trick however is that, since ethanol uses the same enzymes as methanol to be metabolized, and ...


2

The mechanism of action of L-Theanine is not quite well understood and at some degree recent studies find themselves in contradictory with the results, nevertheless I think the essencial is this Glutamate is a powerful excitatory neurotransmitter. It plays an important role in cognitive functions such as learning and memory due to its role in synaptic ...


2

Regarding the steps, I'll get to #1 a bit later. It's actually a bit subtle how mRNA vaccines work in re #2, i.e. actually making sure translation happens. It also makes sense to discuss this first; otherwise, there's not much point in delivering something that doesn't work. A popsci explanation "from the helicopter" is that one needs to use "...


1

The entire point of having a placebo control from a statistics perspective is that the only thing different between the groups is the treatment. You cannot say this is true if you also tell people which group they are in: if you do this, there are now two differences between groups, 1) Treatment vs placebo, 2) Knowing they are in the placebo group vs. ...


1

Actually, according to the official drug label found here, 3 out of 5 indications allow several dosage regimens that include those you asked about: 2.1 Treatment of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women The recommended dosage is: one 70 mg tablet once weekly or one bottle of 70 mg oral solution once weekly or one 10 mg tablet once daily 2.2 Prevention of ...


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