6

I'm not familiar with using citrate or EDTA as an anticoagulant in medical care (i.e. as a drug). However, it is often used in blood sampling tubes so that the blood sample does not clot. As to their difference, EDTA works irreversibly while citrate is reversible. EDTA is used more often most notably to get the complete blood count. Citrate is mostly used ...


6

The NEJM editorial that accompanied that issue says: One antiviral-drug candidate is a combination of the HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir. Lopinavir, which acts against the viral 3CL protease, has modest antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. A quick search shows that SARS-CoV 3CL protease was the topic of some more in-depth investigations, ...


5

The aim of taking two antibiotics at the same is to prevent an overgrowth of the H. pylori strains that could be resistant to a single antibiotic. The antibiotic choice depends on the individual sensitivity to antibiotics. Various treatment regimes have been proposed: Helicobacter pylori treatment: antibiotics or probiotics (Applied microbiology and ...


5

Catecholamines This interaction relates to a broad family of hormones called catecholamines. There are many examples and they share a common structure. Dopamine Adrenaline (epinephrine) Notice the common structure of catechol (the carbon ring with two hydroxyl (OH) groups) and an amine (NH2) group. This group of hormones and neurotransmitters act as ...


4

Yes, daily sedation interruption means a break in giving the sedation therapy. According to a 2014 Cochrane review: Daily sedation interruption versus no daily sedation interruption for critically ill adult patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation: Daily sedation interruption (DSI) is thought to limit drug bioaccumulation, promote a more ...


4

First of all, if you found papers that suggest certain unexplored side effects, it means the research is underway and it can very well be that in the next years we get new information about how drugs work. Now to the actual question. From the pharmacokinetic point of view, PPIs only affect proton pumps of the stomach. The solution behind this is very simple: ...


4

"Proton pump" is a broad category of proteins rather than a specific pump. The drugs called "proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)" to reduce stomach acid target a specific proton pump, the hydrogen/potassium ATPase. Of course, it is possible for drugs to have off-target effects at other proteins, especially similar ones. It is also possible for ...


4

Yes, activated Charcoal (AC) can be given rectally. Although this is a veterinary journal, I doubt the principles are different and according to this article it's given in a liquid slurry, much like oral administration: Enemas also have been used to decrease the colonic bacterial numbers and substrates. The following types of enemas have been recommended: • ...


3

Such a tracker is available on the Milken Institute website. It currently lists 52 vaccine candidates and 79 treatment candidates. Update: one month later (May 4th) it lists 123 vaccine candidates and 199 potential treatments. Incredible! Update #2: there are now 202 vaccine candidates and 316 potential treatments, as of August 8th


3

I think you're asking about trials See the clinical trials database


3

Several combinations between analgesics and other compounds could be interesting for medical treatment and used in pain treatments, however, the logic isn't only effectiveness. For a medication to be approved by regulatory authorities, such as FDA, as over the counter or under prescription, pharmaceutical companies look first on the ROI (return of investment)...


3

To understand the advantages of Extended Release (ER) and Delayed Release (DR) formulations, the primary differences between them should be highlighted. Taken from "A Clinician's Guide to Oral Extended-Release Drug Delivery Systems in Epilepsy" (italics are mine): Delayed-Release (DR) Formulations. The US Pharmacopeia (USP) defines DR as a dosage ...


3

Physiology, Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone (StatPearls): Nausea and vomiting are controlled by the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata, which is located between the brainstem and spinal cord. The main part of the vomiting center is the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), also known as the area postrema (AP), which receives signals from: the blood (uremia, ...


3

According to UpToDate: At levels of therapeutic anticoagulation, VKAs (vitamin K antagonists) typically cause only mild prolongation (or do not prolong) the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and they do not prolong the anti-factor Xa activity level, a test typically used to measure the effect of heparin or direct oral factor Xa inhibitors I ...


3

This type of phenomenon will almost always be seen with drugs that target foreign pathogens capable of change, i.e., bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, etc. In addition to antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral and antifungal medications can also decrease in effectiveness overtime as the pathogens develop resistance mechanisms. For instance, HIV ...


2

1) Blood glucose level 64 mmol/L is possible. From a case (a 16-years-old girl with diabetes type 1) report article Severe degree of hyperglycaemia: insights from integrative physiology (OJM, 2002): The physicians seeking the consultation defined the starting point, the very high blood sugar level of 70 mmol/l (1260 mg/dl). (^ ^ From the context it's ...


2

Ventilator-associated events" (VAE) are complications (infections and others) that usually need additional treatment, so they are usually associated with prolonged ICU "length of stay" (LOS). But someone with more severe initial condition without VAE may stay in ICU for longer than someone with a milder condition + VAE. Poor outcomes after mechanical ...


2

In the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), water gain and loss in 24 h can be measured from: Water gain: drinking, tube feeding or intravenous infusion Water loss: urine There can be substantial additional loses via excessive sweating, vomiting and diarrhea, and those are not usually measured, but only estimated and may or may not be recorded. If the question is, ...


2

You pretty much answered your questions, except for 5 and 6. 1) Diabetes is a serious disease, so it needs to be diagnosed accurately and complications detected early (some people will already have complications at the time of first diagnosis). All this requires investigations for which a primary doctor doesn't have equipment/experience and time. Also, from ...


2

As of August 24, 2020, the jury is out on your question--Can the replication and transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) virus in humans be inhibited in a similar way by the use of oseltamivir? It could be answered definitively only in a randomized trial. The company that manufactures Tamiflu—the branded version of oseltamivir--seems not to consider ...


2

This drug is not one of the candidates for the WHO mega study "Solidarity" nor do I see it in any other prospective trial. Without trial data your question can not be answered. WHO and partners are organizing a study to compare untested treatments throughout several countries. “This large, international study is designed to generate the robust data we ...


2

The Mayo Clinic page shows only some antidiabetic drugs; they just didn't mentioned few more as you did. A combination therapy for diabetes type 2 (UpToDate) is a combination of at least 2 oral antidiabetic drugs, or a combination of one or more oral antidiabetic drugs with insulin. The term is used when the therapy is planned as combined and not when it ...


2

Retrobulbar hemorrhage (RH) is (Johnson et al., 2009). an ocular emergency resulting from arterial bleeding in the orbital cavity behind the eye. Because the orbit is a relatively fixed space, increasing volume will increase orbital and intra-ocular pressure, resulting in compression of orbital structures and ischemia of the eyeball and optic nerve (Ord, ...


2

As far as treatments are concerned, there is https://www.covid-trials.org/. It allows you to filter results by trial status (completed, recruiting, etc.), treatment and location. It also has links to trial results (where available) and registry information. It does not have information on vaccine candidates, though. Reference: Thorlund A, Dron L, Park J, et ...


2

The problem appears to be that the SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to the ACE2 receptor and carries the receptor into the cell where the RNA of the virus is then released. Because the cell now lacks ACE2 surface receptors this leads to intracellular damage due to lack of inhibition of AT1-R in the Renin Angiotensin System. The cells that are damaged in the lung ...


2

There are no specific proven drug treatments for Covid-19 disease but quite a few claims based on very limited experience which is why the WHO is arranging a mega trial called SOLIDARITY to test 4 protocols. Remdesivir, an anti-Ebola drug, a RNA polymerase inhibitor Hydroxychloroquine - a drug used in SLE/Rheumatoid arthritis that may have some ACE2 ...


2

I think you're missing the point still. The "benefit" column in that table is about benefits of the modification, not the drug. A drug modified to prevent release in vitro (kind of a weird phrasing..) is designed to require an additional processing step that occurs when the drug is taken normally (often orally), but not when it is abused (like ground up and ...


2

It appears that Vitamin D oil drops are just as effective as tablets. Well they have the oil which helps the Vitamin D absorb since D is fat soluble I guess. https://vitamindwiki.com/tiki-download_wiki_attachment.php?attId=13764&download=y We compared the effectiveness of tablets versus oil in raising S-25-hydroxyvitaminD(S-25-OHD) in plasma by re-...


2

The answer to this question lies within the clinical settings methadone and buprenorphine/naloxone are used in, and the forms in which they are provided to users as a result of how they are absorbed. Methadone is provided by specially licensed clinics that require patients to come in daily to clinic to take methadone under direct observation. For the first ...


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