Hot answers tagged

34

The IARC has concluded that cell phones are a "possible carcinogen" due to the amount of evidence going both directions. The gist of it is summarised on the website itself: Cell phones emit radiofrequency energy, a form of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation, which can be absorbed by tissues closest to where the phone is held. The amount of ...


15

Screening tests are done across the population of asymptomatic people at risk of a disease (e.g. mammogram to look for breast cancer in all women with breasts) to try to catch disease early in its course. Diagnostic tests are done when a patient presents with symptoms. The ROMA test is a diagnostic test done when a woman presents with an adnexal mass, and ...


14

Telling people not to look information up themselves is indeed very strange. Especially a recently diagnosed patient has lots of questions and won't be able to ask all of them at their appointments (questions coming up between appointments, questions from relatives and friends they want to answer, forgetting to ask things, etc.). However, searching for ...


13

The potential health risks of sunscreen include: The absence of UVA filters combined with a longer exposure time of the sunscreen user1995, 2005, 2007, 2007. Suppression of the skin's production of melanin, a natural broad-spectrum photoprotectant1995, 2004. Skin penetration (free radical generation) by sunscreen chemicals1996, 1997, 2006, 2007. Cytotoxic ...


12

Every procedure has to be weighed for potential costs and benefits. Cancer is a risk already present and might shorten a life, CT scans on the other hand are done to prolong a life. The exact risks (costs) for CT scans is unknown, especially the exact risks for you, since we only have statistical data to estimate that. Prior data forms the basis for this ...


11

Another answer did a great job laying out some of the difficulties plaguing research on this topic. Observational data in the area are (hopelessly?) confounded. I would like to point out two alternative lines of research that may leave the reader with some hope that we’ll eventually have a good answer to this question. Surrogate markers: A major difficulty ...


11

Exposure to ionizing radiation, such as from x-rays, is known to increase the risk of cancer. However, although many studies have examined the potential health effects of non-ionizing radiation from radar, microwave ovens, cell phones, and other sources, there is currently no consistent evidence that non-ionizing radiation increases cancer risk (1). Source: ...


10

Wearing sunscreen while out in the sun cuts your risk of skin cancer. As others have pointed out, there are some potential risks associated with wearing sun screen. However, if you are out in the sun, these risks are far outweighed by the risk of UV exposure. This Skeptics.SE answer has a very comprehensive overview of the facts, in particular citing a ...


9

A California Proposition 65 warning doesn't really tell you anything about the safety of the luggage. Proposition 65 requires warnings if somebody may be exposed to a substance that has a 1 in 100,000 chance of causing cancer over the course of 70 years, or has the possibility of causing birth defects or reproductive harm, as determined by the California ...


9

In short: According to several recent systematic reviews of studies, milk consumption is not associated with significant side effects, increased mortality, cancer, osteoporosis, heart disease or stroke. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence (PubMed, 2016) very few adverse effects have ...


8

Thus far, more than 20 different tumor markers have been characterized and are in clinical use... There is no “universal” tumor marker that can detect any type of cancer. [L]imitations to the use of tumor markers[:] ...noncancerous conditions can cause the levels of certain tumor markers to increase. ...not everyone with a particular type of cancer will have ...


8

Ingestion of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), especially very high strength H2O2, can be very dangerous and can cause some serious health risks and possibly even death. A United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announcement made in 20061 says that drinking high strength H2O2, specifically H2O2 of 35%, is extremely dangerous and can cause several serious ...


8

I agree with @YviDe. There are other possible reasons not mentioned, however. On the internet, which is not tailored to individuals, there is no way to tell which category of a particular illness you fall into. People can read about the worst case scenario and not know how likely or unlikely it is to apply to them. No one wants a patient with cancer to ...


8

Hyperventilation can lead to reduced oxygen transport to cells. As a result, ineffective breathing patterns can cause cell and tissue hypoxia, chronic inflammation, immunosuppression, and many other negative effects caused by low body-oxygen levels and hypocapnia (reduced CO2 levels). Hypoxia has been found to be a driving force in several health ...


7

What is Aloe vera? Aloe vera is the common name of one particular species of the genus Aloe (member of the Xanthorrhoeaceae family). There are over 420 different plant species and the most commonly used in consumer products. Most commonly used is Aloe barbadensis, Aloe barbadensis (Mill.) or (Miller) or Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (scientific name). Processing ...


7

Although it would be helpful if we knew what sort of pathology report this was, I surmise that it is likely describing analysis of a biopsy or surgically removed tissue specimen from a breast cancer. In breast cancer, it has long been known that some but not all tumors express hormone receptors, particularly estrogen and progesterone. Although the mechanism ...


7

I think the currently accepted answer is incorrect on a number of points. The official California Proposition 65 (aka OEHHA) site FAQ, has more accurate information. There is also another FAQ from the Attorney General, which answers the question as well. The OEHHA site says: The purpose of Proposition 65 is to notify consumers that they are being exposed ...


7

First of all, your numbers are good, but they depend on when one was born, and are higher for younger people: The lifetime risk of cancer increased from 38.5% for men born in 1930 to 53.5% for men born in 1960. For women it increased from 36.7 to 47.5%. Results are robust to different models for projections of cancer rates. Trends in the lifetime risk of ...


7

There are really two distinct questions here, but they are common. Is cancer heritable? Is cancer (or cancer risk) contagious? tl;dr Most cancer cases are not heritable. Some are. Heritable cases have particular characteristics (early onset, more than one close relative, often with cancer at multiple sites). Cancer is not contagious. Some cancer risk ...


7

You're describing an unexpected intra-operative finding. The possibility of unexpected findings (and their treatment) is usually discussed during the consent for the original procedure. Of course, in this situation, there was no initial discussion. The way this sort of issue is usually framed in medical ethics uses a framework of four principles (see ...


7

Mr. Hiroyasu Yamashiro wrote an anwer: Thank you for your question about the paper. The meaning of the abbreviations you ask is as follows. Thank you. Sp - Supraclavicular lymph nodes Ps - Parasternal lymph nodes Hiroyasu Yamashiro


6

For any reasonable risk, the answer is no. Virtually all tumors are non-transmissible under normal (non-laboratory) circumstances (three exceptions, discussed below, none in humans), so you could not possibly get the cancer the animal had. However some cancers arise because of environmental factors which may still be present in the animal. For example, an ...


6

The problem with these diets is not only do they not treat the cancer, but the false hope they offer prevents people (in this case, a woman with breast cancer) from receiving treatment that does reduce or potentially even eliminate the cancer. Breast cancer is a common cancer in women, and it was politicized a couple of decades ago, meaning the ...


6

The causal sequence indicated here doesn’t make a lot of sense to me. Having signed many death certificates, I can sympathize with the doctor who signed off on it. Generally, these have to be typed up in a form (in my experience, on a typewriter....). Someone other than the doctor usually does that, which means there is some verbal communication between the ...


6

CT brain at 31, what's the risk? Short answer: Very little, compared to overall cancer risk* Longer answer: Your girlfriend is concerned about increased risk of brain malignancy due to having a CT at age 31. This is something that the FDA has weighed in on in a helpful summary page: As in many aspects of medicine, there are both benefits and risks ...


6

Screening tests such as "blood tests and imaging" have two costs and one benefit: the cost (dollars and possible health problems) of the actual screening, which can in some cases be free the cost (dollars and possible health problems) of the followups required when the screening is positive the benefit of less people dying or their treatment being less ...


6

Great answer above. This is to add on to it: Making a decision on whether to recommend screening tests for the entire population is different from deciding whether to screen an individual patient. The USPSTF uses panels of experts who employ extensive epidemiology and biostatistics and literature reviews to make those recommendations. At the population ...


6

Cancer can be one of the most complicated concepts in medicine, not only because of the pathophysiology of cancer, but the complicated statistics involved in the epidemiology of the diseases and interpreting the results of studies on treatments. If your previous studies have been completely outside of the biological sciences, it will be very difficult to ...


6

You are correct that carcinoma refers to types of cancer arising from epithelial tissue. Definition of carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover body organs. This includes tissues that line both the inner and outer surfaces of the body and that arise from cells originating in the endodermal, mesodermal or ectodermal ...


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