34 votes
Accepted

Would the human seasonal coronaviruses be just as deadly as COVID-19 in a population with no prior immunity?

The seasonal coronaviruses attach exclusively to cells with a ciliated epithelium. Coronaviruses invade the respiratory tract via the nose. After an incubation period of about 3 days, they cause the ...
Graham Chiu's user avatar
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33 votes

Father gets chickenpox, but doesn't infect his two children. How is this possible?

If there was close contact, if the 90% rate is accurate, and if occurrence is independent in related individuals, then you would expect 0.10 * 0.10 = 1% of contacts with 2 potentially vulnerable ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
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14 votes
Accepted

If a SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic infected individual is exposed to a high viral load, could they develop COVID-19 disease?

What your government is proposing is a lot less than what was actually done in China. There, and perhaps that is still the case, large numbers of asymptomatic infected people were housed together in ...
Graham Chiu's user avatar
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13 votes
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Father gets chickenpox, but doesn't infect his two children. How is this possible?

To add to @BryanKrause's answer re: rare events happen all the time, the children are not out of the woods yet. The mean incubation time for a primary VZV infection (the clinical syndrome known as ...
De Novo's user avatar
  • 3,178
12 votes
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What is the main way COVID-19 spreads?

The confusion exists because there are conflicting pronouncements from various authoritative sources but also conflicting pronouncements from the same authority. Covid-19 is a respiratory infection ...
Graham Chiu's user avatar
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9 votes
Accepted

Medical relevance of tetanus vaccination

Clostridium tetani is the causative organism in tetanus. It requires an anaerobic environment to grow so is found in soil and in the gut of animals. Person to person transmission is not possible. ...
Graham Chiu's user avatar
  • 13.3k
8 votes

Father gets chickenpox, but doesn't infect his two children. How is this possible?

Apart from not getting infected due to pure chance (as mentioned already) there is one highly probable explanation (explanation, not overall chance). People get, but don't show it: asymptomatic ...
LаngLаngС's user avatar
  • 6,907
7 votes

Why don't gum abscesses heal on their own?

Good evening, The reason the abscesses in your mouth won't heal on their own is due to: The fact that the mouth is one of the areas of the body with the most bacteria Therefore, the immune system ...
enap_mwf's user avatar
  • 1,225
7 votes
Accepted

Is Myocarditis infectious?

Myocarditis itself is not a virus nor is it contagious - the term refers an inflammation of the myocardium (a.k.a. the heart muscle). A viral infection is probably the most common cause of myocarditis ...
motosubatsu's user avatar
  • 1,291
7 votes

Are there diseases for which infection does not grant lasting immunity but a vaccine does?

Rabies is almost 100% fatal so there is no chance to develop immunity. So, post-exposure vaccination is used if the person has not been vaccinated prior to exposure. Rabies is a vaccine-...
Graham Chiu's user avatar
  • 13.3k
7 votes

Are there diseases for which infection does not grant lasting immunity but a vaccine does?

Varicella zoster - you can get infected and then develop shingles recurrences which are preventable using vaccination eg Shingrix https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/shingles/public/shingrix/index.html
Sohrab T's user avatar
  • 196
7 votes

How Long Must a Window Remain Open to Decrease the Risk of COVID?

The premise of the question, that viral particles leaving through an open window is the dominant way risk decreases, is flawed. As bob1 notes in the comments, decrease due to loss through the window ...
Ian Campbell's user avatar
  • 3,256
6 votes
Accepted

Can dog bites cause Echinococcosis?

Dog bites are the most common type of animal bites. Only 5% of dog bites lead to local infection. No, echinococcus can't be transmitted through dog bites. Pathogens which can be transmitted by the ...
S.Victor's user avatar
  • 905
6 votes

What methods are there to diagnose helminths?

Yes, there are other methods, but they are dependant on the type of helminth. Common tests for helminths are the following: serological tests molecular tests microscopic tests To have the most ...
Narusan's user avatar
  • 6,901
6 votes
Accepted

Will 70% isopropyl alcohol deactivate i.e. kill COVID-19?

Yes, it does. According to the CDC, this is how surfaces should be disinfected: Surfaces Wear disposable gloves when cleaning and disinfecting surfaces. Gloves should be discarded after ...
Carey Gregory's user avatar
  • 9,872
6 votes

If I get COVID-19, can I get cured by myself?

If you’re young and healthy with only mild symptoms, your doctor will likely advise you to isolate yourself at home and to limit contact with others in your household. You’ll likely be advised to rest,...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
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6 votes
Accepted

Are there known outdoor super spreader events for COVID-19? Are there *any* known outdoor infections at all?

There are known instances of outdoor transmission, and even some fairly large spread, but every study I've been able to find that attempted to differentiate between indoor and outdoor transmission ...
BrenBarn's user avatar
  • 611
5 votes
Accepted

Difference between common cold and flu?

Symptoms, in short: Common cold: blocked nose, yellow/green mucus, scratchy throat lasting for 7-14 days (usually no headache, fever or fatigue), year round Hay fever (allergy to pollens): runny ...
Jan's user avatar
  • 15.9k
5 votes

Difference between common cold and flu?

In general a cold (usually rhinovirus), Influenza, or even a bacterial infection can have quite similar symptoms. If contracted through airborne particles, they primarily affect the respiratory system....
Ben Cannon's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

Effect of the common cold on the immune system

I've written on this subject a few times, but the most relevant question ended up being closed, and the other is on Bio.SE, so I will mostly focus on tailoring the information there to the specifics ...
Atl LED's user avatar
  • 1,933
5 votes

Why stomach ulcer need more than one antibiotic at the same time?

The aim of taking two antibiotics at the same is to prevent an overgrowth of the H. pylori strains that could be resistant to a single antibiotic. The antibiotic choice depends on the individual ...
Jan's user avatar
  • 15.9k
5 votes
Accepted

Drinking alcohol after tick-borne encephalitis vaccine

No, you can't get encephalitis from the vaccine. According to a company that provides one brand of the vaccine: https://centrumcestovnimediciny.cz/en/prices-of-vaccines/encepur-for-adults/ On the ...
Carey Gregory's user avatar
  • 9,872
5 votes

Can HIV patients get further infected by their own blood?

No. One is either infected or one isn't. There is no middle ground. Infection is defined as invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, as in an infectious disease. Also, ...
Narusan's user avatar
  • 6,901
5 votes

Are motorcycle helmets effective in preventing Corona?

It's better to use some guidelines from reputable sources rather than coming up with your own. The WHO does not recommend masks for healthy people in most circumstances, only when directly dealing ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
  • 14.1k
5 votes

Would the human seasonal coronaviruses be just as deadly as COVID-19 in a population with no prior immunity?

I should add here that there has been a case of ARDS reported for the alphacoronavirus 229E (i.e. a "common cold" coronavirus) in 2018. But ARDS occurrences are of course, much less common in these "...
the gods from engineering's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

UTI bacteria climbing up urine stream!

Credit to: No Such Thing As A Fish Podcast. On one of the latest podcasts Harkin descries that with the Mate Tea (a very fine particulate tea) you can get upstream movement of particulates. "The tea ...
John's user avatar
  • 1,104
4 votes

Do I have to wait after a tick bite to get vaccinated for encephalitis?

Waiting period It's hard to prove some information doesn't exist, but maybe I'll get points for effort ;) There is a section on "Post exposure vaccination" in the (long) World Health Organization ...
YviDe's user avatar
  • 6,992
4 votes

Why is FMT an effective treatment for Clostridium difficile?

It seems to be unclear and likely some kind of combination of several factors. The paper Fecal microbiota transplantation in relapsing Clostridium difficile infection mentions two theories as to why ...
YviDe's user avatar
  • 6,992
4 votes

Why are people with certain blood types more/less susceptible to norovirus?

Noroviruses (NoVs) and Rotaviruses (RVs) recognize histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) (Tan & Jiang, 2014). HBGA are found on most epithelial cells, which line the gut. It would make sense then, ...
Thomas TJ Checkley's user avatar
4 votes

Does being infected protect one from further infection?

In general: No. Having ulcers does not protect you from catching the flu. But that "no" is an oversimplification. The devil is indeed in the details. The innate immune system and the ...
LаngLаngС's user avatar
  • 6,907

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