32

If there was close contact, if the 90% rate is accurate, and if occurrence is independent in related individuals, then you would expect 0.10 * 0.10 = 1% of contacts with 2 potentially vulnerable people to result in neither person infected. 1% sounds rare, but rare events happen all the time, and 1% isn't even particularly rare. If you know 100 families, you'...


14

This is a pretty old old-wives tale, taking many forms: don't go out into the cold while it's raining, or without a hat, with wet hair, without a warm coat or scarf, without boots, etc., "or you'll catch your death of cold." The old wive's tale was immortalized by Jane Austin in her book, Pride and Prejudice, when the heroine's sister Jane falls ill after ...


14

To add to @BryanKrause's answer re: rare events happen all the time, the children are not out of the woods yet. The mean incubation time for a primary VZV infection (the clinical syndrome known as chicken pox) is 14 days, but often lasts up to 21 days (see Murray Medical Microbiology, Ch. 53). The father is infectious while shedding virus, usually via the ...


10

Ear tubes do many things to help ear infections. The most important things they do are draining the ear of fluid and ventilating the ear. Overall, this will help your child hear better. The tubes also stop fluid from building up behind the ear drum, which should help prevent the ear infections. Stuff to watch out for There is always the possibility of ear ...


10

As you have noted, the "paroxysmal" stage of a clinical case of pertussis, which involves the rapid, exhausting coughing fits and the characteristic "whoop" at the end can often be extremely long. While it usually lasts 1-6 weeks, it can persist for up to 10 weeks, followed by a convalescent period. One reason for the long duration of the cough is that by ...


10

The confusion exists because there are conflicting pronouncements from various authoritative sources but also conflicting pronouncements from the same authority. Covid-19 is a respiratory infection spread by droplets that can be aerosolized (nuclear droplets) in certain situations such as by flushing toilets or in certain medical procedures such as ...


9

Clostridium tetani is the causative organism in tetanus. It requires an anaerobic environment to grow so is found in soil and in the gut of animals. Person to person transmission is not possible. Vaccination state is irrelevant for both parties. http://www.cdc.gov/tetanus/about/index.html


8

There have been no additional reports in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, which was where your original article points to regarding the efficacy of the flu vaccine. However, the most recent update on influenza activity within the United States, which was about a month later than your report, does not suggest there has been any mid-season change in ...


8

Apart from not getting infected due to pure chance (as mentioned already) there is one highly probable explanation (explanation, not overall chance). People get, but don't show it: asymptomatic infection Asymptomatic infection is unusual, but some cases are so mild, they go unrecognised. The primary viraemic phase is followed by a secondary viraemia to ...


7

MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is suspected in the face of any acute staph infection that does not respond to normal antibiotics. Even staph that is more resistant to other antibiotics than it is to methicillin is routinely called MRSA. The standard test for MRSA (differentiated from other forms of staph) is as straightforward as it ...


7

I think you are having difficulty finding the answer because you are perhaps not asking the right question(s). ...why are more efforts not made to improve their function? How would you support the assertion that more isn't being done to "improve their function"? The fact that you don't know about something doesn't mean it's not being investigated. ......


7

It does so by drying out your mucous membranes. Air moving over your face as you sleep is going to have more of a drying effect on your nose, sinuses, and throat than still air. This is especially true when the air is dry, such as in winter or when the air is from an air conditioning unit. The reason the membranes inside your upper respiratory tract are ...


7

This is an old wives tale. Being cold in and off itself will not cause you to catch a cold because a cold is viral. 3 However, being cold for a long time can lower your immune response and if your system was already fighting a cold then symptoms may present that were not needed before. This is because your scored an own goal when you lowered your immune ...


7

To provide a brief answer, as I think a sufficient answer would be far beyond the scope of this site, the symptoms that are "generic" to the common colds are all caused by the body's response to a pathogen (it's why they are generic). Specific pathogens tend to cause additional symptoms on top of that, some of which seem to be directly related to viral ...


7

Myocarditis itself is not a virus nor is it contagious - the term refers an inflammation of the myocardium (a.k.a. the heart muscle). A viral infection is probably the most common cause of myocarditis but there's many different viruses that can have it as a complication including: Adenovirus (the common cold) Hepatitis B/C Parvovirus HIV Rubella the list ...


6

Yes, typhoid is most certainly contagious. Indeed, one of the major figures in the history of public health, Mary Mallon (aka Typhoid Mary) is associated with this disease. The only known hosts for Salmonella typhi, the causal organism for typhoid fever, are humans and higher primates, so it is definitely spread from person to person. This is primarily ...


6

It sounds like you're talking about otitis externa, an infection of the ear canal, a condition where you really should avoid getting any water in your ear. You've already identified that the cap in question is not really waterproof. The best way (and really the only way) to keep water out of your ear is to stay out of the water until your ear has had time ...


6

No one can predict the future, nor can we diagnose over the internet, so I won't address that aspect of your question. However, I can tell you why the doctor wanted the following shots. Tetanus immunization: Any time a person gets a "dirty" wound* (animal bites and cat scratches are considered dirty - think of what a cat does with it's paws), tetanus ...


6

There are many factors that influence the transmission of infectious agents, and in the case of public swimming pools: the number of bathers the condition of the pool care taken to disinfect the water ...will heavily influence the likelihood of contracting a disease. The air around us is filled with various benign fungi (including other pathogens such ...


6

Good evening, The reason the abscesses in your mouth won't heal on their own is due to: The fact that the mouth is one of the areas of the body with the most bacteria Therefore, the immune system cannot get ride of all bacteria, especially when they reside in or around teeth, which are relatively poorly vascularised and doesn't regenerate after being ...


6

Dog bites are the most common type of animal bites. Only 5% of dog bites lead to local infection. No, echinococcus can't be transmitted through dog bites. Pathogens which can be transmitted by the saliva of the dog are rabies, pasteurella, capnocytophaga and brucella. Echinococcus could be transmitted by dogs but through fecal transmission. Dogs are the ...


6

Yes, there are other methods, but they are dependant on the type of helminth. Common tests for helminths are the following: serological tests molecular tests microscopic tests To have the most significant diagnostic impact, new techniques and assays should be simple and yield rapid results. Such characteristics could be achieved by reducing the number ...


6

Yes, it does. According to the CDC, this is how surfaces should be disinfected: Surfaces Wear disposable gloves when cleaning and disinfecting surfaces. Gloves should be discarded after each cleaning. If reusable gloves are used, those gloves should be dedicated for cleaning and disinfection of surfaces for COVID-19 and should not be used for ...


5

My experience has been that when I, or someone in my family, gets chilled, this seems to increase the chance of coming down with a cold. I tried searching on google for this, and found this article, which says: in mouse airway cells, rhinovirus replicates preferentially at nasal cavity temperature due, in part, to a less efficient antiviral defense ...


5

I've written on this subject a few times, but the most relevant question ended up being closed, and the other is on Bio.SE, so I will mostly focus on tailoring the information there to the specifics of this question. If you look at ether of my previous answers, you will note the first thing we need to establish is what is causing the common cold. From the ...


5

As you mentioned, whooping cough is caused by Bordetella pertussis. It proves to be a very stubborn diseases especially in children. Why this cough lasts so long? There could be many reasons. Firstly, the bacteria attach themselves to the cells lining the airways and then gradually spread all over. The area of lungs and airway is quite large and it ...


5

In general a cold (usually rhinovirus), Influenza, or even a bacterial infection can have quite similar symptoms. If contracted through airborne particles, they primarily affect the respiratory system. Mucus, sneezing, fever, are all signs that the body is fighting an infection, as is fatigue as the body diverts resources to the immune system. Essentially, ...


5

Symptoms, in short: Common cold: blocked nose, yellow/green mucus, scratchy throat lasting for 7-14 days (usually no headache, fever or fatigue), year round Hay fever (allergy to pollens): runny nose (not really blocked), clear mucus, itchy eyes, lasting for several weeks, mainly in spring (usually no headache, fever or fatigue) Flu (seasonal influenza): ...


5

The aim of taking two antibiotics at the same is to prevent an overgrowth of the H. pylori strains that could be resistant to a single antibiotic. The antibiotic choice depends on the individual sensitivity to antibiotics. Various treatment regimes have been proposed: Helicobacter pylori treatment: antibiotics or probiotics (Applied microbiology and ...


5

No, you can't get encephalitis from the vaccine. According to a company that provides one brand of the vaccine: https://centrumcestovnimediciny.cz/en/prices-of-vaccines/encepur-for-adults/ On the day of application it is recommended to avoid any strains, sauna or excessive alcohol drinking. One beer doesn't constitute excessive drinking. The ...


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