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Physiology, Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone (StatPearls): Nausea and vomiting are controlled by the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata, which is located between the brainstem and spinal cord. The main part of the vomiting center is the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), also known as the area postrema (AP), which receives signals from: the blood (uremia, ...


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You pretty much answered your questions, except for 5 and 6. 1) Diabetes is a serious disease, so it needs to be diagnosed accurately and complications detected early (some people will already have complications at the time of first diagnosis). All this requires investigations for which a primary doctor doesn't have equipment/experience and time. Also, from ...


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Yes, daily sedation interruption means a break in giving the sedation therapy. According to a 2014 Cochrane review: Daily sedation interruption versus no daily sedation interruption for critically ill adult patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation: Daily sedation interruption (DSI) is thought to limit drug bioaccumulation, promote a more ...


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Metformin, a dimethylbiguanide, is a widely used oral antihyperglycaemic drug for the long term treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It lowers blood glucose in multiple ways, including suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, increased peripheral insulin-mediated glucose uptake, decreased fatty acid oxidation, and increased intestinal glucose consumption. ...


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1) Blood glucose level 64 mmol/L is possible. From a case (a 16-years-old girl with diabetes type 1) report article Severe degree of hyperglycaemia: insights from integrative physiology (OJM, 2002): The physicians seeking the consultation defined the starting point, the very high blood sugar level of 70 mmol/l (1260 mg/dl). (^ ^ From the context it's ...


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Ventilator-associated events" (VAE) are complications (infections and others) that usually need additional treatment, so they are usually associated with prolonged ICU "length of stay" (LOS). But someone with more severe initial condition without VAE may stay in ICU for longer than someone with a milder condition + VAE. Poor outcomes after mechanical ...


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In the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), water gain and loss in 24 h can be measured from: Water gain: drinking, tube feeding or intravenous infusion Water loss: urine There can be substantial additional loses via excessive sweating, vomiting and diarrhea, and those are not usually measured, but only estimated and may or may not be recorded. If the question is, ...


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