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20

Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant. Drinking under-age increases alcohol risks in later life. Research shows the brain keeps developing well into the twenties, during which time it continues to establish important communication connections and further refines its function and studies show that young people who ...


14

Basically, most of what you suggested. One of the big risks of alcohol consumption is damage to the liver. Thus, if drinking a lot, don't do anything else that damages the liver, like taking medication that can itself lead to liver damage. The most common drug that this includes is acetaminophen (paracetamol). The next important thing is to get the ...


11

Another answer did a great job laying out some of the difficulties plaguing research on this topic. Observational data in the area are (hopelessly?) confounded. I would like to point out two alternative lines of research that may leave the reader with some hope that we’ll eventually have a good answer to this question. Surrogate markers: A major difficulty ...


9

The liver breaks down about 90% of alcohol consumed, with only about 5% excreted in the urine. To become combustible, the ethanol concentration in urine would have to approach 50% at room temperature, though 20% would combust at around body temperature. However, conversion of ethanol into acetate by the liver generates one molecule of water for each molecule ...


9

To date, there has been no randomized clinical trial of low‐volume alcohol consumption that has assessed any mortality outcome. Therefore, the literature about the mortality effects of alcohol consumption consists entirely of observational studies. Source: Naimi, Timothy S. et al. Selection biases in observational studies affect associations between ‘...


9

Yes It’s zero. See: Doll, R., & Hill, A. B. (1950). Smoking and carcinoma of the lung; preliminary report. British medical journal, 2(4682), 739–748. doi: 10.1136/bmj.2.4682.739 pubmed central: PMC2038856 And their follow up papers. And pretty much the entire medical literature on smoking.


8

The only difference it makes to the liver how alcohol is consumed is how high the blood alcohol content becomes and for how long - the other particulars of the beverage will be filtered out by the digestion process. Beverages containing a higher alcohol content will tend to cause a higher peak blood alcohol content because they can be consumed more quickly ...


6

The best reference I could find on this was Schwegler et al. (2013), which gave detailed descriptions of both the processes of transfer of alcohol to the bloodstream and breast milk and the effects thereafter in the mother and the infant. Here is a somewhat condensed timeline of what happens. Intake. The mother consumes an alcoholic beverage, which travels ...


6

High levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be harmful which can develop physical and mental defects in a fetus. When you drink, alcohol passes from your blood through placenta to a baby and can stunt fetal growth, facial deformities, damage neurons and brain structures which can result in intellectual disability and also cause other physical ...


6

I don't think that you will find a definitive answer on this, unfortunately. There are too many factors on an individual basis to make it a blanket kind of projection. The closest that I found for any kind of writeup that addresses it is this published article. The pertinent part of that is this section here: How Much Alcohol Must Be Ingested (and over ...


5

The right amount is none. Not at all. Don't do it. Don't even consider it. There have been multiple studies on alcohol and brain development, quite a few of them on teens, as they are one of the higher risk groups. All of these show significant impacts on brain and social development. There are fewer on the young child (non infant) as they are not ...


5

Smoking and drinking both put the recipient of the blood donation at risk or possible risk. Smoking causes nicotine to enter your bloodstream and usually breaks down into cotinine. Both of these are connected with increasing plasma Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) levels, which may be involved in the progression of both vascular disease and cancer. ...


5

There are a variety of blood tests a medical provider could use. Your medical provider isn't going to do every blood test in existence on your blood, so if your only concern is about THC detection, unless the consultation is a drug screening (for example, if it were mandated by a court due to previous drug convictions, or part of an employment screening that ...


5

No, you can't get encephalitis from the vaccine. According to a company that provides one brand of the vaccine: https://centrumcestovnimediciny.cz/en/prices-of-vaccines/encepur-for-adults/ On the day of application it is recommended to avoid any strains, sauna or excessive alcohol drinking. One beer doesn't constitute excessive drinking. The ...


5

No. "The J-curve" was not recently disproven, but the evidence for it slightly modified. The correlational observation is still that no and low amounts of drinking do not have seriously negative health outcomes associated with them. What has changed is what conclusions campaigners for "zero alcohol" draw from that evidence. We do not have any evidence that ...


5

I am unaware of any medical study that indicates a drop of alcohol is sufficient to trigger a relapse on its own. Relapse is a complex phenomenon. The quote you provide sounds like it comes from a "12-step" program or similar that considers alcohol as something that is incredibly powerful over addicts and must be completely avoided. This approach works for ...


5

While there is some evidence for what we call a J-shaped curve in the relationship between alcohol consumption and certain health outcomes, at best this evidence only suggests people who already drink modestly have better health outcomes than people who don't drink at all. There is no strong evidence that starting to drink a glass a day, if you do not drink ...


5

How does one explain 'avoid purines in food' if purine-rich plant food isn't counting? Sustained increase in blood uric acid levels (hyperuricemia) is a risk factor for acute gouty arthritis (Current Pharmaceutical Design). Purines can increase serum uric acid levels. Intake of hypoxanthine, the main purine in organ meats, red meat and seafood, strongly ...


5

On the chemical level, the toxicity of ethanol is mainly mediated by its breakdown product acetaldehyde. Alcohol is metabolized like this: ethanol → acetaldehyde → acetate → acetylCoA → CO2 + water When alcohol is drunk in small amounts, acetaldehyde is quickly metabolized to CO2 and water, but when drunk in ...


4

Drinking alcohol can have some detrimental effects. While someone is pregnant, binge drinking of alcohol is very dangerous, while mild-to-moderate is more safe, but still not advised. "When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, so does her baby."1 Drinking alcohol during pregnancy raises the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and some physical and mental ...


4

About all you can do is ventilate the room and wait for it to evaporate, which shouldn't take long. It's hard to say exactly how long without knowing the type of carpet, ambient temperature, relative humidity, etc, but I would expect a few hours, not days. Although isopropyl alcohol evaporates quickly, keep in mind that a 50% solution is 50% water, so your ...


4

There is some agreement that the calories and other nutrition data, except the percent of alcohol, do not need to be shown on the labels of alcoholic beverages. But these nutrition facts are listed in the USDA.gov nutrients database (search for beer, wine, vodka, gin...) For example, 1 jigger or 1.5 oz of 80 proof vodka has 97 Calories. These calories ...


4

1) Is my brain still in 'development'? It is. Your brain constantly grows until you are 25. According to recent findings, the human brain does not reach full maturity until at least the mid-20s. (See J. Giedd in References.) [...] 1 The rational part of a teen's brain isn't fully developed and won't be until he or she is 25 years old or so. [...] In ...


4

What are effects of microdosing alcohol on the liver's ability to metabolize toxins? There seems to be no effect. Alcohol can induce the enzyme system CYP2E1 in the liver, which can speed up the metabolism of toxins thus making some more and others less toxic. But according to niaaa.nih.gov: ...CYP2E1 only is active after a person has consumed large ...


4

Vomiting does not restore alertness. It might rouse them from their stupor because of the physical activity it involves, but it does nothing specific to increase their level of consciousness. If vomiting accomplishes this temporary feat, vigorous efforts to rouse them would probably accomplish the same. Trust me, people can and do choke to death on their own ...


4

Fomepizole is indeed the preferred treatment for methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning, but ethanol can be used if fomepizole is not available. Some doctors/ hospitals will treat alcohol withdrawal with alcohol (or at least did fairly recently), but everywhere I've worked uses benzodiazepines or similar medications to treat it. I am not aware of any other ...


3

If there's a field of medicine that deals with this issue more than any other, it's emergency medical services. Drunks are a daily staple for them, even in "nice" communities. So the following is based on my previous EMS training. It is always unethical not to do an adequate medical assessment, but that doesn't mean you have to treat the thing they're ...


3

When drinking alcohol, the small water-soluble ethanol enters the bloodstream and moves around till it reaches the brain. Since it is a small molecule, it enters the blood-brain barrier and passes between brain cells (neurons) interfering with the neurotransmitters of the nervous system. Ethanol causes the release of Dopamine (Happiness Hormone) and stops ...


3

The most severe health risk from frequent alcohol consumption are liver damage and malnutrition. There are others, see my list of sources, but I'll focus on those two in my reply. The malnutrition is mostly vitamin deficiencies: folate, vitamin B6, thiamine, and vitamin A. I think it's rather obvious that obvious that consuming more water will not help ...


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