13

Marijuana as medicine Its usage in modern times is controversial, however studies of chemicals in the plant (cannabinoids such as THC, CBD) has lead to two FDA-approved medications and more research may lead to more medications. Marinol which has been approved by FDA is used for the treatment of anorexia in HIV/AIDS patients as well as for nausea and ...


12

This seems like a difficult question as there continues to be a large amount of conflicting reports about the extent of biological consequences regarding cannabis usage. However, There is general consensus that smoking cannabis causes irreversible cognitive impairment in children and pre-pubescent adolescents. {6} Marijuana smoke has been listed on ...


6

I don't think that you will find a definitive answer on this, unfortunately. There are too many factors on an individual basis to make it a blanket kind of projection. The closest that I found for any kind of writeup that addresses it is this published article. The pertinent part of that is this section here: How Much Alcohol Must Be Ingested (and over what ...


6

"Recreational drugs" have "psychotropic effects," which means they affect the mood and perception of stimuli in the brain. Both alcohol and heroin are psychotropic drugs. Alcohol acts mainly on the GABA and glutamate receptors in the brain resulting in disinhibited behavior. Heroin acts on the opioid receptors in the brain, which results in euphoria. ...


5

It's not really medically accurate, unless there are other drugs of abuse present, or some other disease etiology. The quote that you reference is correct, heroin addiction by itself shouldn't produce seizures as part of withdrawal symptoms. However, there can be other drugs present (Such as alcohol, which can definitely produce seizures during withdrawal) ...


5

Catecholamines This interaction relates to a broad family of hormones called catecholamines. There are many examples and they share a common structure. Dopamine Adrenaline (epinephrine) Notice the common structure of catechol (the carbon ring with two hydroxyl (OH) groups) and an amine (NH2) group. This group of hormones and neurotransmitters act as ...


5

Okay, this is the closest you're going to get to a "military grade" nerve agent that elevates your mood: using botox as an antidepressant. Botulinum toxin A (botox) is a nerve agent. In fact, it's the most potent toxin known, and could potentially be used as a bioweapon. Botulinum toxin: Bioweapon & magic drug (Dhaked, et al. 2010) Botulinum ...


4

There are some data about possible causes of vaping-related lung damage, the type of the damage and symptoms, but not about the changes in medical history questionnaires, vaping habits or e-cigarette firmware. Most commonly associated substances were THC and nicotine containing oils. Most of the investigated samples contained very high amounts of vitamin E. ...


4

Amyl Nitrite Treats and prevents chest pain (angina pectoris). And more pertinent for the question: On the street, this medicine and others like it are sometimes called "poppers." They have been used by some people to cause a "high" or to improve sex. Use in this way is not recommended. Amyl nitrite can cause serious harmful effects if too much ...


4

Lowered brain activity in a PET scan isn't necessarily bad. It depends on what part of the brain is less active than usually and whether this is a permanent or transient state. Our brains are less active during sleep - that isn't a bad thing. Anyway, brain activity isn't just generally lowered during meditation. On the contrary. Functional brain mapping ...


4

Most drugs have wanted (main) and unwanted (side) effects, but neither of them are guaranteed. For example, aspirin may or may not relieve your headache and may or may not upset your stomach. The lists of drug side effects base on decades of studies and consumers' reports, such as FDA (US), YellowCard (UK), Adreports (EU) and Medsafe (NZ), but if, let's say,...


4

The following are studies which indicate cancer risks from third hand tobacco smoke which to me seems non-ambiguous. Sleiman, M., Logue, J. M., Luo, W., Pankow, J. F., Gundel, L. A., & Destaillats, H. (2014). Inhalable constituents of thirdhand tobacco smoke: chemical characterization and health impact considerations. Environmental science & ...


3

These tables you wish for are not quite exactly in the format you would seem to like them and as far as I know not available for a "global every substance we know" analysis. It is also quite difficult to compare all of them in one metric alone since these drugs are sometimes quite incomparable. General harmful results involving a certain drug Most of the ...


3

Yes What you are taking is somewhat 25-times the recommended amount for medication. You are probably experiencing a fairly strong addiction to the drug. Yes, addiction can do many things to your body, including screwing up your amount of sleep and thus changing appearance of your eyes. Effects of the drug include dizziness dilated pupils drowsiness ...


3

Hemp has a highly heterogenous chemical composition. ∆9Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is just one of many active substances. Although THC is the most psychotropic 'ingredient' in cannabis it is by far not the only cannabinoid responsible for different experiences with different preparations. The most important difference in outcomes of hemp consumption is from ...


3

Early symptoms around 6 to 12 hours, more severe symptoms at around one to three days. All depending on how much the individual was using previously and what you interpret as "serious". According to the NHTSA: Withdrawal can begin within 6-12 hours after the last dose and may last 5-10 days. Early symptoms include watery eyes, runny nose, yawning and ...


2

If you are concerned about your lungs you could try to use edibles. They will not have any effect on your lungs. However you should be careful because the onset of edibles takes longer (generally between 30 minutes and an hour) so it is harder to dose and generally lasts for a longer period (4-6 hours). Another way of consuming cannabis involves the use of ...


2

Here are the sources you can use: The main issue is that due to government controls on substances like LSD, very little research ends up being conducted with/about them due to the difficulties and regulations involved. So information about substances like LSD comes from three main sources: The few peer-reviewed academic/pharmaceutical studies which make it ...


2

One of the major things about heroin is that it is metabolized by the body as morphine and, if this person in the throes of heroin withdrawal were given medication like methadone, it couldn't be done without medical supervision as these are both really powerful drugs. Did the article say anything about the patient's daily ANYTHING? With the assistance of ...


2

I guess the best way would be to convince a blind person to take some psilocybin mushrooms or LSD. Perhaps they would actually see some fractals and stuff, since those visions are generated in the corresponding areas of the brain. Even if not, then the blind person would definitely feel the psychedelic effects: the acute perception of self and the ...


2

Yes, nicotine replacement therapy is used in multiple forms, including a skin patch and oral dosing with gums and lozenges. The purpose is to help avoid the side effects of nicotine withdrawal, while delivering nicotine at lower doses than is obtained through smoking, to help manage craving and eventually stop smoking entirely. As far as the delivery ...


2

Contra to Jan's answer, "so they do not have psychotropic effects"... actually they do. First, acetylcholine is a CNS neurotransmitter as well. Second, nerve agents aren't that selective (like many psychiatric drugs actually): Nerve agents cause excessive stimulation of the cholinergic system, with stimulation of muscarinic receptors at autonomic effector ...


2

While it could still be a mixture of acute reasons: metals, dust, plainly unknown toxins; the underlying reason seems not to be that plant matter is vaped, nor that liquids are vaped. It also seems not to be causal whether THC or nicotine are in most cases "associated" with the disease. What the fast onset of this disease makes prudent: implicating either ...


1

the illicit drug supply chain has an incentive to make drugs addictive but safe, as a dead client is a bad client Theoretically yes, however, safety is a cost factor. Everything from packaging to quality assurance has a price tag on it. It would make the drug trade unprofitable. Illegal trade comes with the benefit of being unregulated as well. Some of ...


1

Question: Why is it that psychoactive ("feel good") drugs tend to be dangerous? The question implies that psychoactive drugs are 1) dangerous and that 2) the reason is in their low therapeutic indices. Answer: Psychoactive drugs make one feel good, which, for some people, is addictive, so they start to overuse them. Overuse can result in increased ...


1

Some amphetamines can cause hair loss. The mechanism how this happens does not appear to be known. Also some anabolic steroids (AAS) can cause it, presumably through conversion to DHT. The situation with AAS is more complicated, as they can also cause the opposite (hirsutism). The effect of AAS depends on the area, i.e. whether the hair is androgenic or not....


1

Cocaine is a highly addictive substance. What starts off as seemingly harmless experimentation can quickly develop into a potentially life-threatening addiction with devastating personal, professional, financial, and familial consequences. Common signs of cocaine use include: Dilated pupils Long periods of wakefulness Loss of appetite Overconfidence Over-...


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