17

Assuming pregnancy takes place, the only reliable sign that a woman is pregnant is cessation of her menstrual period. If she's late, urine tests are a reliable way to confirm pregnancy, especially if the woman has irregular periods. Up to 50% of women will not experience nausea (the range, depending on the study, is 15-50%); while most will, when they do ...


6

This question is difficult to answer because risk discussions are individualized. Instead of answering, I will point you to reliable resources to guide your discussion with your OB. One great source of pooled evidence is UpToDate. I would also recommend reading articles from ACOG and AAFP, professional organizations that are going to be impartial as ...


5

The concept of fetal viability is really only relevant when discussing premature infants. You are correct that the wikipedia figures are difficult to interpret. They come from this website, which is not itself a peer reviewed source, does not declare the source of these data, and do not define their terms. Unlike vital statistics like infant mortality, fetal ...


4

Well, neglecting anything but the pure genetics' basics, yes, the XX mother will in any case transfer her X chromosome, just like the assumed "XX father", so the only possible genotype for the child is XX.


4

No. There have been several trials testing this and they have not shown benefit. One example of the conclusion from such a trial: Supplementation with vitamins C and E during pregnancy does not reduce the risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous women, the risk of intrauterine growth restriction, or the risk of death or other serious outcomes in their ...


1

Patterson et al (1986) may be a bit outdated, but showed that for first pregnancies 2.5-10th percentile (9.6% of their sample), second pregnancies were 14.2% in that same category plus 3.9% less than 2.5th percentile (overall relative risk 2.2). For first pregnancies <2.5th percentile (2.8% of their sample), second pregnancies were 18.8% in 2.5-10th plus ...


1

To find the answer to this I had to find out the prevention measures and management of Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH). Oxytocin is typically used right after the delivery of the baby to prevent PPH (Weeks, 2015). Misoprostol may be used in areas where oxytocin is not available. Nipple stimulation and breastfeeding triggers the release of natural oxytocin in ...


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