17

Assuming pregnancy takes place, the only reliable sign that a woman is pregnant is cessation of her menstrual period. If she's late, urine tests are a reliable way to confirm pregnancy, especially if the woman has irregular periods. Up to 50% of women will not experience nausea (the range, depending on the study, is 15-50%); while most will, when they do ...


12

The estimated daily requirement needed to maintain body stores of B12 varies, an estimate being from 2µg to 5µg, more if stores have been depleted in any way. It is estimated that the average person stores about 1 mg (1000 µg) of B12 in their liver, and other smaller amounts elsewhere. The recommended daily allowance assumes a 50% absorption rate of ingested ...


11

Specific to the health of the baby, no, you should not have any concerns over a single flight, or even over an occasional flight. From the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is this helpful guide to air travel during pregnancy, where they specifically discuss a few risks which I will summarize below. All of this assumes a healthy ...


10

Smoking during pregnancy is bad. Really bad. It will be damaging to the baby, and possibly even to the mother. Firstly, smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriages. It can also cause premature birth, which can lead to many health complications, such as low weight, feeding difficulties, and breathing problems. A mother who smokes while ...


9

Smoking during pregnancy is related to many effects on health and it increases the risk in children as well. Even if the mother doesn't smoke, the risk increases significantly with higher amount of passive/secondhand smoking. These health risks include: on ongoing pregnancy: premature rupture of membranes, placental abruption (the fetus can be put in ...


8

First of all, just to be clear: IVF-associated twinning and “tripletting” are most commonly of the dizygotic (“fraternal”) variety. You appear to be asking about monozygotic (“identical”) twinning given the reference to “splitting the egg.” I will provide a brief overview of both. Types of multiple conceptions and relationship to IVF Dizygotic ("fraternal"...


7

She had two periods afterwards so she is not pregnant. Who are you to demand that she take a test? You pretty much called her a liar when you did that. If you can't or won't accept her at her word about being on birth control, not being pregnant, etc, then I recommend you quit sleeping with women you have such a low opinion of.


7

Without access to a doctor, a home pregnancy test is the most accurate way. It measures the amount of a hormone (hCG) in your urine (see for example WebMD's site on pregnancy tests for more information on how it works) . The other two reliable methods are a blood test for the same hormone and an ultrasound (usually conclusive starting from week 3 after ...


7

The anesthetics used for the root canal are not very long lasting. An example of the longer-acting local anesthetics is Bupivacaine. The average half-life of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride in adults is 2.7 hours (that is, within 2.7 hours, half of the total dose absorbed is metabolized. In people with liver or renal failure, it may be longer, as it is ...


7

There are many facts to consider in answering the question, but in effect, yes, one can calculate the chances. Things to consider: type of condom correct usage of condom point in the menstrual cycle Condom type Latex condoms are somewhat more effective than polyurethane condoms, mostly due to breakage and slippage. However, since in your scenario the ...


6

"When the time came for her to give birth, there were twin boys in her womb. As she was giving birth, one of them put out his hand; so the midwife took a scarlet thread and tied it on his wrist and said, “This one came out first.” But when he drew back his hand, his brother came out, and she said, “So this is how you have broken out!” And he was named Perez. ...


6

High levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be harmful which can develop physical and mental defects in a fetus. When you drink, alcohol passes from your blood through placenta to a baby and can stunt fetal growth, facial deformities, damage neurons and brain structures which can result in intellectual disability and also cause other physical ...


6

The following is of course, in case the diagnosis is confirmed. SLO is an autosomal recessive pathology, which means both parents are carrier of one mutated allele of the DHCR7. They do not express the pathology because the other allele isn't mutated and this allows for a normal function of the DHCR7 gene. This also means there is nothing that can be done ...


6

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is a genetic condition that only occurs if both parents are carriers of the mutation. For each chromosome that isn't a sex chromosome, we get one copy from each parent, so we have two copies of every gene. The "autosomal recessive pattern" means that the condition is not linked to the sex chromosomes (autosomal) and only occurs in ...


6

Any line, including a very faint line, is considered a positive result on home pregnancy tests. To be sure, you may want to wait a couple of days (2 or 3) and then take another test. If you are pregnant, then the line should become darker. One of the commons reasons for a faint line on a pregnancy test is because you could be very early in your pregnancy. ...


6

This is an issue for which YOU NEED to have a risks-benefits discussion with a doctor. Only they can help guide you whether to continue the medication or not, as there may be risks either way. I am answering this question because it is helpful to be aware that until recently, the FDA classified medications into Pregnancy Risk Categories based upon evidence ...


6

There's no need to worry. Getting pregnant isn't that easy.1 It's unlikely that sperm survive for 2 hours. On a dry surface, such as clothing or bedding, sperm are dead by the time the semen has dried. In water, such as a warm bath or hot tub, they'll likely live longer because they thrive in warm, wet places. But the odds that sperm in a tub of water ...


6

While the blood pregnancy test is one option, urine pregnancy tests are still possible in an unconscious patient via a Foley catheter, which is a tube inserted up the urethra into the bladder. These catheters are commonly placed in trauma patients (2). There are several things that can be done during emergency management of a patient that can potentially ...


6

This question is difficult to answer because risk discussions are individualized. Instead of answering, I will point you to reliable resources to guide your discussion with your OB. One great source of pooled evidence is UpToDate. I would also recommend reading articles from ACOG and AAFP, professional organizations that are going to be impartial as ...


5

Yes, a mother's emotional state can, unfortunately, adversely affect the fetus, and the effect can in some cases can be long-lasting. To put it simply, your genetic code is the blueprint of your physical, and to some degree your cognitive, self. Just as many desirable and undesirable conditions have a genetic basis, so too are more and more psychological ...


5

There's a number of medical reasons to take the pill other than preventing pregnancy : Regulating menstruation to avoid having irregular, overly frequent, overly abundant or painful periods, as well as premenstrual syndrome Endometriosis Polycystic ovary syndrome Acne Source Edited because I did in fact understood birth control pills and not prenatal ...


5

While most studies appear to be on women who quit during pregnancy, I found a study that compared pregnancy outcomes in women who never smoked, quit smoking before pregnancy, quit smoking in early pregnancy, and those that smoked during pregnancy. It found maternal smoking cessation before or during early pregnancy appears to result in appropriate fetal ...


5

No. The only exception is if your doctor has conducted a semen analysis and determined that you have oligospermia, in which case your doctor might recommend having sexual intercourse with your wife 3-4 times a week instead of every day. The bottom line: Don't start any unproven 'methods' for increasing the chances of pregnancy without talking with your ...


5

In the U.S., 14 in every 100 000 pregnancies are fatal for the mother. While this may not seem much, consider the following graphic: In picture B and D the blue bars indicate deaths due to pregnancies. While those numbers have decreased since 1990, in 2010 they still accounted for a large proportion of deaths of women in that age group. A selection of ...


5

This is something to be confirmed by your doctor and I'm not sure why you're worried, but ABO blood group incompatibilities between the mother and child does not usually cause hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) because antibodies to the ABO blood groups are usually of the IgM type, which do not cross the placenta. However, in an O-type mother, IgG ABO ...


5

The concept of fetal viability is really only relevant when discussing premature infants. You are correct that the wikipedia figures are difficult to interpret. They come from this website, which is not itself a peer reviewed source, does not declare the source of these data, and do not define their terms. Unlike vital statistics like infant mortality, fetal ...


4

Drinking alcohol can have some detrimental effects. While someone is pregnant, binge drinking of alcohol is very dangerous, while mild-to-moderate is more safe, but still not advised. "When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, so does her baby."1 Drinking alcohol during pregnancy raises the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and some physical and mental ...


4

I am going to try and tackle this. If anything isn't covered or is unclear, please leave a comment. 1) Initial Consultation That is, I assume, just the initial doctor's visit - taking your wife's health history, weight, blood pressure, etc. That is, of course, completely reasonable. 2) Initial Consult - Fetal Medicine I am not completely sure what ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible