20

Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant. Drinking under-age increases alcohol risks in later life. Research shows the brain keeps developing well into the twenties, during which time it continues to establish important communication connections and further refines its function and studies show that young people who ...


17

This is a hot topic, and I don’t think there is a firm consensus in the child psychiatry world about the answer. I think a good summary of the literature would leave you with: X, Y, and Z studies showed an association; Χ, Ψ, and Ω studies showed no association. Excellent. Ιn lieu of that, I'm going to use one study to illustrate a couple methodological ...


12

In general, no. A ketogenic diet is one where carbohydrates are eliminated and protein is restricted, to force the body to obtain its energy from the metabolism of fatty acids and ketone bodies, rather than the normal method of glucose metabolism. It is used primarily to treat otherwise-intractible epilepsy, and to a lesser extent, to deal with certain ...


11

Since melatonin is secerned by many glands (pituitary, thyroid, pineal, adrenals, and gonads), it might be a malfunction of one of these. I am not yet a physician, but I suggest you to try to properly address underlying causes. Maybe melatonin supplements are just a palliative which helps controlling symptoms of something else, like an adenosine lack. That ...


9

The human immune system Basically, the human (and that includes all ages) immune system has two parts: The innate immune system is a very old part (which doesn't mean it's bad or superfluous, on the contrary) that is responsible for a nonspecific immune response when the body encounters a pathogen. This is a very quick response and includes inflammatory ...


8

Your have three questions in one now: Is a ketogenic diet appropriate for a one year old? Is a carbohydrate reduced diet appropriate for a one year old? Is milk really necessary for a one year old, or can I replace it with something else? Milk Milk is a very obvious nutritional choice for a small child. You mention that your child has been drinking ...


6

I highly advise against such a restrictive and one-sided diet for a child! For children a balanced diet is important both for their physical and mental development. This means that malnutrition can cause permanent damage to both the mental and physical health of children. See for example this research article describing cognitive and physical retardation as ...


6

TL; DR: No, they won't impact growth if practiced within reason, and there is no damage to growth plates from injury. The medical community and the public in general seems to regard strength training as a general voodoo practice that will "hurt you". Fortunately, this has been getting debunked soundly for over a decade now. Despite earlier concerns ...


5

The right amount is none. Not at all. Don't do it. Don't even consider it. There have been multiple studies on alcohol and brain development, quite a few of them on teens, as they are one of the higher risk groups. All of these show significant impacts on brain and social development. There are fewer on the young child (non infant) as they are not ...


5

Breast milk is known to provide many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. According to 'Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications to Infant Formulas.’: Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities ...


5

It would appear that breast feeding allows the infant gut flora to rapidly normalize after the course of antibiotics whereas this can be a problem for artificially fed infants who can suffer with post antibiotic diarrhoea. Savino et al., (2011) studied the gut bacteria of exclusively-breastfed infants, with an average age of 4 months, who were admitted to ...


5

The statistic is false, though there's something meaningful behind it. From Godar et al, 2003: Since 1986, people have been informed that they get about 80% of their lifetime ultraviolet (UV) dose by the age of 18. This belief originated from the mathematical conclusion that diligent use of sunscreens (sun protection factor 15 or higher) during the first 18 ...


4

It is true that high altitudes can cause an increased risk of ear infection. JohnP mentioned in his comment that on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) website for acute ear infections, it says that "Changes in altitude or climate" can increase the risk of getting an ear infection. The reason for this is also explained on the NIH website. That page ...


4

The best way to answer this would depend on your reason for making the list, which I do not know. Also, I am not sure how to create an international list, as specialties within a country are defined by the training path and board exams, which do differ somewhat between countries. But you do have some misunderstandings on some of the fundamentals of this, ...


4

1) Is my brain still in 'development'? It is. Your brain constantly grows until you are 25. According to recent findings, the human brain does not reach full maturity until at least the mid-20s. (See J. Giedd in References.) [...] 1 The rational part of a teen's brain isn't fully developed and won't be until he or she is 25 years old or so. [...] In ...


4

First, let's define retrograde amnesia carefully. You'll find many sources listing drugs that cause retrograde amnesia but they're using the term incorrectly. From http://www.human-memory.net/disorders_retrograde.html: Retrograde amnesia is a form of amnesia where someone is unable to recall events that occurred before the development of the amnesia, ...


4

According to one 2010 paper, which actually tried to identify the correlates of the behavior, albeit in a small sample (n=13, 3 males, 10 females) that was referred to a clinic: The median age at the first incident was 19.5 months (range, 4-36 months); the median masturbation frequency, 4 times/day; and the median duration of each event, 3.9 min. The ...


3

NB: I'm going to steer clear of addressing the specific scenario and stick to the general case, your friend should of course seek advice from their primary doctor regarding the best thing to do for the child in question. Are there vaccines which specifically must not be taken too often, say after 5 years instead of 10 years? Yes, for example REVAXIS - the ...


3

Words like them and the are quite similar, which makes things more difficult for a child with dyslexia since they sometimes opt to just analyse part of the word and guess the entire word based on the first part. Such strategies are used to avoid the extensive amount of effort that reading poses on them, though it can increase reading frustration because it ...


3

In some cases, antibiotics are given to close contacts Bacterial meningitis is an example of an infection which antibitics would be given to close contacts of someone suffering from a confirmed case, whether the contacts displayed signs and symptoms of meningitis themselves- a prophylactic antibiotic supply. There are a number of official recommendations on ...


3

For US FDA approval, for example, drugs approved for pediatric use are drugs that have been studied and to some degree shown safe and effective in children. However, many trials and often use of drugs and devices in children is not approved, yet drugs are still used. It is up to physicians to weigh the risks and benefits. Typically, randomized controlled ...


3

"Rachi-" is a prefix associated with the spine, as in Rachischisis. "Amino" is a bit more familiar: it refers to the amino chemical group, or in biomedicine, amino acids. "Aminorachia" seems to be a rarely used term, I see only 3 hits in Google Scholar. One of the sources using the term provides some better context: Selective aminorachia with normal ...


3

The question implies that breastfeeding is an unpleasant and inconvenient thing that should be put up with as long as possible to give a baby "enough" benefit, at which time the box can be ticked and everyone can stop. However most families that nurse past 6 months find it a convenient and pleasant thing, so there's no particular pressure to stop. The ...


3

I checked and found following coagulation problems may occur in patients with congenital cyanotic heart diseases (commonest example tetralogy of Fallot): Thrombotic episodes may occur due to: Hyperviscocity due to markedly elevated haematocrit (red cell mass), which in turn occurs due to chronic hypoxia and cyanosis Iron deficiency leading to spherical ...


3

WebMD recommends brushing children's teeth for 2 minutes (with different amounts of toothpaste for different age groups). Dental Health Foundation of Ireland doesn't give recommendations on the length of brushing for children 0-2 years of age, and recommends brushing without toothpaste at that age. For children 2-7 years of age they recommend brushing with ...


3

As I argue in my answer to this question, there seems to be a threshold in terms of the amount of alcohol likely to cause hepatocellular necrosis based on the production of acetaldehyde. However, alcohol causes damage to other cells in the body such as in the brain and throat. Since your example is of hard liquor, there would be damage to the mouth and ...


3

The American Academy of Pediatrics Bright Futures public health initiative has developed a comprehensive assessment of approaches to Promoting Oral Health in infants and children. The "Promoting Oral Health" document describes in detail the reasoning and evidence for the recommendations. Of particular note is the section on 1-4 years: The key oral ...


2

The evidence for a specific timeframe beyond six months is inconclusive. Therefore: When to wean is a personal choice that has to look at the health of both: mother and child. "Individual infants must still be managed individually." Reference: Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: what is the evidence to support current recommendations? DOI:10.1093/...


2

In the scientific discourse around Covid-19, I haven't seen statements that "the role of children and schools in the covid-19 epidemic is small". What I've seen is statements that "the role of children and schools alone in the Covid-19 epidemic is small", that is, closing schools alone will have little impact on the spread of the disease. In order to keep ...


2

To elaborate from a UK perspective, especially regarding two of the comments: Genera Practitioner is not a “basic level” kind of Doctor in the UK. It has a separate specialist training programme, run by the Royal College of General Practitioners. Broadly, this programme takes about 50% of UK trainees, and produces doctors with a breadth and depth of medical ...


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