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8

The only difference it makes to the liver how alcohol is consumed is how high the blood alcohol content becomes and for how long - the other particulars of the beverage will be filtered out by the digestion process. Beverages containing a higher alcohol content will tend to cause a higher peak blood alcohol content because they can be consumed more quickly ...


8

Detoxification is one of the primary functions of the liver. When you ingest something, if it is absorbed, it enters the portal vein which delivers the blood directly to the liver. There, the liver metabolizes, "detoxifies", excretes, synthesizes, and stores. What needs to be stored The liver stores excess glucose in the form of glycogen, fat-soluable ...


7

The Hepatitis B core antibody test is positive for IgG but negative for IgM indicating that you had the hepatitis B infection a while ago. The negative hepatitis B surface antigen test means that they are not detecting the hepatitis B in your blood when testing for the virus surface antigen. This means you've successfully cleared the infection to a very low ...


5

On the chemical level, the toxicity of ethanol is mainly mediated by its breakdown product acetaldehyde. Alcohol is metabolized like this: ethanol → acetaldehyde → acetate → acetylCoA → CO2 + water When alcohol is drunk in small amounts, acetaldehyde is quickly metabolized to CO2 and water, but when drunk in ...


4

What are effects of microdosing alcohol on the liver's ability to metabolize toxins? There seems to be no effect. Alcohol can induce the enzyme system CYP2E1 in the liver, which can speed up the metabolism of toxins thus making some more and others less toxic. But according to niaaa.nih.gov: ...CYP2E1 only is active after a person has consumed large ...


4

A tattoo will be irrelevant to the person with Hep-B receiving it. The risks will be the same as anyone else receiving a tattoo, except of course that Hep-B won't be among those risks as it normally would. It will not make the condition worse. However, it will present a risk to the tattoo artist and anyone else exposed to the used needles, ink, and other ...


4

Two important questions: Has AST/ALT elevation been present only once in blood sample? Is the elevation more than 3x the upper limit? Basis for "normal" values should be understood. "Normal" values indicate confidence interval which includes 95% of healthy individuals. As so, any blood test with slightly elevated value may be normal, since all healthy ...


4

It seems that your friend has confused first-pass metabolism with overall liver metabolism. Anything that goes into your digestive tract (including the medicines taken (per)orally) goes straight to the liver, through hepatic portal vein. Once the substances reach the liver they are metabolised to a certain extent, depending on their chemical structure. Then, ...


3

No, these claims do not hold any validity. As you have said, the claims are vague, often saying that these "toxins" (not specified) are the cause of a catch-all list of symptoms. Unsurprisingly, they are usually associated with some sort of "detox" product or program. After all, the premise of "toxins accumulate" goes hand-in-hand with "therefore we need to ...


2

The part of the question about passive euthanasia is an ethical question, which in my opinion does not fit for Health.SE. From INJURY SEVERITY SCORING: a Hepatic avulsion, which is given with vein has ruptured from vena cava, has an ABBREVIATED INJURY SCALE of 6 which would count as unsurvivable. Problems with the surgical treatment are in ...


2

Naproxen has a half-life of between twelve and seventeen hours.1 Constant steady-state serum levels of Naproxen are produced after four to five days..1 It stands to reason that the lower the dose the lower the renal and hepatic load and vice versa; the higher dosage requires the kidneys and liver to remove more of the drug. @D Bagnall is correct, however, ...


2

In general, if the episode of acute pancreatitis was not due to alcohol consumption and has completely resolved, it would be relatively safe for an individual to resume limited alcohol consumption. The recommendations vary from country to country, but a rule of thumb is a maximal amount of 2 drinks per day for men and 1 drink per day for women. However, ...


2

drugs.com is a great resource. Go to the a Pro Edition header. Once you pull up the medication, scroll down until you find the Pharmacology Category. Once here, look for Metabolism and Elimination. This is where you will find your answer. Wikipedia is also a great place for quick hitter info. Search for the same sections in those articles and you should get ...


2

"Hard on the liver or kidneys" means that the medication is making this organ work harder, damaging it or so potent that the medication is harder to rid from the body. Thinking about the liver: It helps clean your blood by getting rid of harmful chemicals that your body makes Liver Injury Caused by Drugs The pathophysiology of DILI varies ...


2

The conclusion of the mentioned systematic review with meta‐analysis: coffee consumption and the risk of cirrhosis (Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 2016): This meta‐analysis suggests that increasing coffee consumption may substantially reduce the risk of cirrhosis. They say coffee may reduce the risk of cirrhosis, not that it can treat it. ...


2

"The net daily synthesis of cholesterol is equal to the amount of cholesterol lost in the feces minus the dietary cholesterol" The body synthesizes an amount approximately equal to the amount it absorbs Source: Balancing Cholesterol Synthesis and Absorption in the Gastrointestinal Tract David E. Cohen, M.D., Ph.D. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/...


2

Can acute liver failure be caused by an alcohol binge? Yes Are the harmful effects of alcohol on the liver limited to chronic abuse? No. The harmful effects of alcohol on the liver are in general certainly not limited to chronic abuse. The immediate dangers of alcohol are often as much overstated as the long time dangers from it. "Often ...


1

To get the answers started, though admittedly with a very rough estimation, I'll add my own idea of a lower bound of calories burned to regrow an entire liver. Because basic laws of thermodynamics state that to produce 100 calories worth of food requires at the very least 100 calories worth of energy, an estimate on the nutritional content of the liver ...


1

No. We'll go through two examples of why not. Dermal application of medicine. If the main goal of this is to get the medicine circulating in your blood for systemic applications, and the drug is absorbed well through the skin, then the skin route will provide a stronger effect, for a short time. Why? Because the liver metabolizes anything that's entered ...


1

I might hazard a guess that "don't put pressure on your liver" means don't take medications that might tax the liver, or drink alcohol, etc. I don't think they meant "don't squeeze the liver." However, if they did mean that, it would be my recommendation that she sleep in the left lateral decubitus position. Since the liver is on the right side, lying on ...


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