14 votes
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Why didn't smallpox develop resistance to its vaccine?

To answer this question, first it might be useful to talk about how a vaccine actually works: basically, through introducing dead or relatively harmless (attenuated) versions of a virus or bacteria (...
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  • 2,423
7 votes
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Side effects of genetically modified food products

GM food topic is controversial and it's subject of protests, vandalism, referenda, legislation, court action and scientific disputes and this involve consumers, biotechnology companies, governmental ...
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4 votes

Does being infected protect one from further infection?

In general: No. Having ulcers does not protect you from catching the flu. But that "no" is an oversimplification. The devil is indeed in the details. The innate immune system and the ...
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2 votes

Can acne bacteria become resistant to Clindamycin?

Why do you disbelieve the instructions? However, with erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracyclines, the rate of resistance is associated with point mutations in rRNA (Ross et al., 2001). Mutations ...
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2 votes
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Resistance of Bacteria to Antibiotics after fall-back

First of all, nothing is immune to anything, just resistant, and resisitance itself varies. If you develop a bacterial or viral disease, your body will develop antibodies against it. This makes you ...
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2 votes
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Does electrical exposure build human resilience?

Neither. You would either kill them with the first shock or just annoy them every day of their life. Human tissue can't adapt to electricity. It's either enough current to damage it or it's not. And ...
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2 votes

Why does overuse of antibiotics cause resistance?

1: Straight-up natural selection Bacterial population mostly commensals and symbiotes with a few pathogenic bacteria present, some resistant -> commensals and symbiotes keep pathogens in check ...
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2 votes
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Why does overuse of antibiotics cause resistance?

When you take antibiotics you kill not only the bacteria you wanted to, but also any bacteria sensitive to the antibiotics. That is why when you take antibiotics it can cause stomach upset, because it'...
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2 votes

Why aren't superbugs weaker than their wild type?

(This answer is related to my answer on Bacteria resistance to natural antibiotics on the Biology SE) First of all: When it comes to evolution, Biology doesn't talk of 'strong' and 'weak' , it talks ...
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2 votes

Can microbes be bred to be less infectious?

You have three separate issues here; I'll focus on how they affect bacteria in the gut. First, are different yet similar bacteria better or worse for people? Clearly yes; with various types of ...
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2 votes

Does "gram negative" generally indicate highly antibiotics resistant bacteria strains?

Gram positivity/negativity is sort of a historical classification that comes down to an ability to separate bacteria types without knowing what that separation really meant physically. Of course, what ...
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1 vote

Does "gram negative" generally indicate highly antibiotics resistant bacteria strains?

Seems I found the answer about the correlation of gram negative test and high resistance against antibiotics. From Wikipedia Gram-negative bacteria (emphasis mine): Gram-negative bacteria are found ...
1 vote

Why aren't superbugs weaker than their wild type?

In short, because mutations are not defined as specific. A mutation of any bacteria could be mutation that could be weak or strong. Weak & Strong would be quantified by our technology, ...
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