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To answer this question, first it might be useful to talk about how a vaccine actually works: basically, through introducing dead or relatively harmless (attenuated) versions of a virus or bacteria (or more recently, synthetic virus-like particles meant to mimic the outside of a virus), you induce a reaction by your immune system to defend itself. As your ...


7

GM food topic is controversial and it's subject of protests, vandalism, referenda, legislation, court action and scientific disputes and this involve consumers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations and scientists. The main concerns about GM (genetic modified) food and crops is whether they have any negative ...


4

In general: No. Having ulcers does not protect you from catching the flu. But that "no" is an oversimplification. The devil is indeed in the details. The innate immune system and the adaptive immune system have to be considered. The reasoning given in the question is in principle largely only applicable to the innate system. The adaptive immune ...


2

Why do you disbelieve the instructions? However, with erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracyclines, the rate of resistance is associated with point mutations in rRNA (Ross et al., 2001). Mutations in the 23SrRNA component of an E. coli equivalent nucleotide bases give varying degrees of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin.  So, given prolonged ...


2

First of all, nothing is immune to anything, just resistant, and resisitance itself varies. If you develop a bacterial or viral disease, your body will develop antibodies against it. This makes you resistant to the bacteria or virus, but not immune. If you are exposed to a sufficient quantity of that same agent, you will develop the disease again. This is ...


2

Neither. You would either kill them with the first shock or just annoy them every day of their life. Human tissue can't adapt to electricity. It's either enough current to damage it or it's not. And if the path of the current is through the heart, the amount needed to disrupt the heart's electrical functioning is as little as 100 milliamps.


2

1: Straight-up natural selection Bacterial population mostly commensals and symbiotes with a few pathogenic bacteria present, some resistant -> commensals and symbiotes keep pathogens in check through eating their food -> take antibiotics -> resistant bacteria, including resistant pathogens are suddenly favored -> now it becomes a real problem 2: ...


2

When you take antibiotics you kill not only the bacteria you wanted to, but also any bacteria sensitive to the antibiotics. That is why when you take antibiotics it can cause stomach upset, because it's killing off good gut bacteria. Killing off this bacteria can prompt it to change so that it doesn't die anymore. That's why the less you have to take ...


2

(This answer is related to my answer on Bacteria resistance to natural antibiotics on the Biology SE) First of all: When it comes to evolution, Biology doesn't talk of 'strong' and 'weak' , it talks of 'fitness' ("survival of the fittest", for example), which is about how well adapted to their environment an organism is. Fitness includes how well it can ...


2

You have three separate issues here; I'll focus on how they affect bacteria in the gut. First, are different yet similar bacteria better or worse for people? Clearly yes; with various types of Escherichia coli being common and usually benign inhabitants, but E. coli O157:H7 causing severe problems. Second, can directed evolution coax a bad type of bacteria ...


2

Gram positivity/negativity is sort of a historical classification that comes down to an ability to separate bacteria types without knowing what that separation really meant physically. Of course, what really matters isn't whether or not a bacterial species takes up a particular stain, but rather that the reason that they stain well or poorly is because they ...


1

Seems I found the answer about the correlation of gram negative test and high resistance against antibiotics. From Wikipedia Gram-negative bacteria (emphasis mine): Gram-negative bacteria are found everywhere, in virtually all environments on Earth that support life. The gram-negative bacteria include the model organism Escherichia coli, as well as many ...


1

In short, because mutations are not defined as specific. A mutation of any bacteria could be mutation that could be weak or strong. Weak & Strong would be quantified by our technology, treatments and comprehension of the bacteria. There are two factors important to understanding the change of the bacteria. Epigenetic Adaptation (No Genetic ...


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