11 votes
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What is the difference between mutation and variant?

A mutation is just a genetic change. Mutations include point changes that are simply changes of one base to another (e.g., an "A" to a C, G, or T/U), insertions or deletions of single bases, ...
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9 votes

Why is the new mRNA vaccine unable to modify human DNA?

Roman Zieliński seems to be intentionally misleading you by making an implausible circumstance that is technically possible sound like a likely outcome. This strategy is not unusual among people who ...
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7 votes

Why is the new mRNA vaccine unable to modify human DNA?

To supplement Bryan's answer (although I'm not going to say anything fundamentally different here), according to their proponents, mRNA vaccines are considered the safest genetic vaccines (in this ...
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  • 5,773
6 votes

Chances of getting diabetes type 1?

Being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (DM1) at the age of 54 is very rare. It's usually diagnosed in children or teenagers and used to even be called 'juvenile diabetes' because of that. The reason it'...
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  • 6,998
6 votes
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Is the code from the mRNA vaccine executed by the cells as a one-off?

Basically neither of your hypotheses is correct. A piece of mRNA isn't usually destroyed after one transcription. Nor does it create an "infinite loop" in the cell. Instead there's a balance ...
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5 votes
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Child got A+ blood group when both parents are O+

Although such cases are undoubtedly rare, they are not impossible. Here's a case report from 2005: Apparent deviation from Mendelian rules of blood group inheritance is rarely observed. Blood group O ...
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  • 5,773
5 votes

Why is Down Syndrome so common relative to other chromosomal conditions?

I found the answers in a fascinating, and easy to read paper in Nature, called "Chromosomal Abnormalities: Aneuploidies" Here are some key insigths from there: With few exceptions, trisomies do ...
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4 votes
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What effect would a sperm containing XX have on a ovum and fetus?

Well, neglecting anything but the pure genetics' basics, yes, the XX mother will in any case transfer her X chromosome, just like the assumed "XX father", so the only possible genotype for the child ...
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4 votes

Revealing a murderer based on a genetic condition

I'm writing a story, in which the detective will recognize a prescription for the victim is for relief of some genetic condition. You wanted to be realistic: In the autopsy report (after any murder, ...
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  • 6,480
4 votes
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Is there a real life genetic disorder that can be considered as the opposite of achondroplasia?

Achondroplasia is caused by very specific genetic changes of the FGFR3 gene encoded on chromosome 4. According to the GeneReviews on Achondroplasia: The p.Gly380Arg pathogenic variant resulting in ...
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  • 2,049
3 votes

What are the genetic predispositions, if any, for covid-19?

The only data we have suggesting a genetic resistance to Covid-19 so far is that blood group O is protective and so is being female. The latter may relate to the numbers of ACE2 receptors since the ...
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3 votes
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Is there any statistical overlap between people who identify as non-cis and people who have an unusual number of sex chromosomes?

Fernández and colleagues appear to have addressed your question (2018. PMID 29892954): To investigate the possible influence of karyotype on the etiology of Gender Dysphoria we carried out the ...
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  • 2,049
3 votes
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Strange hair growth behavior

There are more possible causes, other than generics, as described here: Stress Stress can also affect your hair. A 2013 study found a connection between stress and a depletion of stem cells in ...
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3 votes
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"Disease X is allelic with disease Y" - what is the meaning of "allelic" here?

According to Humpath.com, allelic diseases are two different diseases caused by mutations of the same gene. Two or more different errors at the same gene can result in two or more different diseases. ...
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2 votes
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COVID-19 and genomic sequencing

This implies to me that there will be some sort of genetic signature attached to the virus by the person acting as a vector. The people don't attach anything to the virus, but the viral genome does ...
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2 votes
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Is it possible that there are some people who cannot get Type 2 diabetes?

I think you're confused by what is meant as a genetic disease. A disease like Huntingdon's Chorea is a genetic disease because we know the genetics, and we know that it occurs due to mutation in an ...
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2 votes

Is being of direct African ancestry a risk factor for severe COVID-19 disease?

As pointed out in the question, there are immune differences between those of African ancestry, and those from out of Africa. We know from genetic studies that there is a major difference between ...
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2 votes

Is it possible for obesity to occur as a result of medical conditions and not just over-eating?

As far as medical conditions, it could be a thyroid problem, or the need to encourage serotonin, and I am sure many other things a doctor would know about so ask a doctor. Another article: magnesium ...
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2 votes
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Are dimples and cleft-chins (aka dimple chins, butt chins) genetic?

DIMPLES Professor McDonald, citing limited research, concludes dimples have been mislabeled as genetically inherited and as a dominant trait. However, the University of Utah considers dimples an "...
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2 votes

Is it possible to not have BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes?

BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the names of genes that every human has1, located on chromosome 17. These genes code for proteins that suppress tumors. However, in some humans these genes carry mutations that ...
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2 votes
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Rheumatoid arthritis heritability

Odds vary. The most straightforward study I could find was Koumantaki et al. (1997), which found several odds ratios for developing rheumatoid arthritis: 4.4 for individuals having a first degree ...
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  • 1,838
2 votes
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Can a young person with hemochromatosis have normal iron levels?

If the person is a HFE homozygote, or a compound heterozygote, then they need to be monitored yearly for signs of iron overload. Iron overload occurs more quickly if there is concurrent alcohol use ...
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2 votes
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23andMe DNA Test is reliable?

I would like to start by saying that 23andMe performs its genetic test in CLIA certified laboratory. Processes like DNA extraction, purification, measurement can only be done under laboratory ...
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2 votes
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What is cloning used for?

Summarizing their methods a bit, the steps are: Use PCR to amplify (make lots of copies) of the gene of interest ("The target regions of ELN were amplified by PCR") Clone the PCR products ...
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2 votes
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What is the probability that a couple has no common defective gene?

"If a couple has no common defective gene, they can produce a big healthy population from just two people, right?" No. As described in the review "The genetic basis of disease" ...
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2 votes

Technology prospects for genome sequencing at home and data protection

I am working in the information security industry and personally following medical technology closely. Your first question kind of asks to predict the future, which nobody can. Yet, I will give you my ...
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1 vote

Technology prospects for genome sequencing at home and data protection

The first question relates to the retail price floor of genome sequencing hardware. As with any commercial product, price depends on demand. I don't envision much demand for home genome sequencing, ...
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1 vote
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on what metabolism depends

Well metabolic rate is determined by many factors. Hormones: BMR is regulated by the thyroid glands. The T3 and T4 hormone levels increase or decrease the BMR. Body Mass: BMR is directly proportional ...
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1 vote

Can viruses be inherited?

A Universal childhood virus is inherited in DNA. A virus that causes a universal childhood infection is often passed from parent to child at birth, not in the blood but in the DNA, according ...
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