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47

The definition of mortality rate that you've given does not match any practical definition I'm familiar with.* When people talk about the mortality rate of a disease, what they usually mean is the case fatality rate or the death-to-case ratio, which is simply defined as Nd / Ni, where Nd is the number of deaths attributed to the disease over a given time ...


26

Assuming the person is not taking anticoagulants, it's actually quite difficult to bleed to death from dismemberment of small members (hands, feet, penis, ears, nose, etc). Even large members such as arms and legs are often survivable because the body is very good at protecting itself from blood loss. For example, transected arteries will spasm and clamp off ...


20

The equation you use for mortality is only really useful in the very long term for a known disease, when most cases have resolved. It's not very informative in the short-term, when the vast majority of total cases are neither deaths nor recoveries. Right now, the vast majority of people diagnosed have a mild illness and are very unlikely to die, but it ...


14

I'd like to chime in with an explanation of what exactly is wrong with the calculation offered in the question, rather than just saying "it's a wrong formula". Understanding the "whys" of the fallacy is important. So I'll try to answer your question from the math point of view. TL;DR: The root cause of the fallacy is that recovery takes much longer that ...


10

You are correct that this happens. It is infrequent (there are not "many", as you say, compared to true deaths), but it occasionally happens that someone - even in a hospital - is thought to be dead when they are not actually dead. In one of your stories, the girl was presumed to be brain dead, not dead. So strike that one. Hypothermia is a beast all unto ...


7

No, a heart does not necessarily stop beating during cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest occurs any tine the heart cannot pump blood to the brain at a rate/volume sufficient for the patient to remain conscious. From your second link: To understand SCA [sudden cardiac arrest], it helps to understand how the heart works. The heart has an electrical system that ...


6

First off, she would be killed instantly. There wouldn't be any question of what might kill her "ultimately" because ultimately would be the moment she hit the ground. Yes, there have been people who survived falls from much greater heights, with the record holder being Vesna Vulović, a Serbian flight attendant who fell 10,160 m (33,330 ft), but those are ...


6

Well, there is one meta-analytical estimate of the IFR for Covid-19 out already albeint only as a draft paper: there were 13 estimates of IFR included in the final meta-analysis, from a wide range of countries, published between February and April 2020. The meta-analysis demonstrated a point-estimate of IFR of 0.75% (0.49-1.01%) with significant ...


5

On the chemical level, the toxicity of ethanol is mainly mediated by its breakdown product acetaldehyde. Alcohol is metabolized like this: ethanol → acetaldehyde → acetate → acetylCoA → CO2 + water When alcohol is drunk in small amounts, acetaldehyde is quickly metabolized to CO2 and water, but when drunk in ...


5

Sound is merely the vibration of molecules in a wave pattern and so the absolute theoretical answer to your question is, yes. Something that can vibrate your molecules has the power to kill you. It just requires a great enough intensity or decibel level. (If you get anything loud enough it could shake you apart.) How loud, well a grenade is about 164 dB. ...


5

Your stomach may contain bacteria that are harmless as long as they are in your digestive tract, but are potentially lethal if they get into other organs. A ruptured ulcer means that it's possible for the stomach contents to leak into the abdominal cavity and possibly the bloodstream. If the bacteria get established in you blood they will be carried to all ...


4

Disclaimer anongoodnurse has provided an excellent answer mostly based on the U.S. I will focus on Germany and European countries to provide you with a broader view of the topic. If you should live in the U.S., this will still matter to you as the medical aspects behind my answer remain the same in the U.S. Obligatory Disclaimer: I am not a ...


4

In the attempt to prevent or treat dehydration you should not drink sea water. In short: By drinking seawater you ingest excessive amount of sodium chloride, which needs to be excreted by urine in order to maintain normal blood sodium concentration. Since the human kidneys have a limited ability to concentrate urine, the amount of water lost by urine in ...


4

TL;DR DO perform CPR as soon as one stops breathing normally and is irresponsive, and don't stop. PERIOD. To be on the safe side, even perform CPR on people you presume to be dead for a longer period of time. There are certain definitive signs of death that doctors will use to pronounce a patient dead. There is a difference between dead and dead As a rule of ...


4

I believe the answer is somewhere between 0.5% and 1% (about 500-1000 deaths per 100000 births). Below is the list of the sources I reviewed. Some sources provide higher estimates, but those should be attributed to unsanitary conditions in hospitals in the past (in the past births in a hospital were more dangerous than at home, because of contamination by ...


4

With 5 or 6 through-and-through gunshot wounds to the chest, the death I would expect to see would be utter silence. Almost instant unconsciousness and cardiac arrest would be the most likely outcome from such massive damage. What people often don't realize about gunshot wounds is that as a bullet travels through flesh, it creates a wound channel much wider ...


4

According to earlier answers, in this early phase of 2019-nCoV, Nd/(Nd+Nr) is an overestimator, and Nd/Nc is an underestimator. Since the currently bantered about rate matches the underwestimator Nd/Nc, you are correct that 2019-nCoV is more 'dangerous' than commonly claimed. I used quotes because dangerous a squirmy term. Noting that Nd/Nc equals Nd/(...


4

This must depend on the local situation. At the beginning of the pandemic Japanese Hospitals were admitting PCR positive asymptomatic patients. Then as the disease spread Chinese authorities in Hubei were creating field hospitals (sixteen Fang Cang hospitals in Wuhan ) to house the less symptomatic patients and leaving the hospitals with ICU facilities to ...


3

According to the Glossary of Old Medical Terms by Craig Thornber: Rising of the Lights: croup - any obstructive condition of the larynx or trachea (windpipe), characterised by a hoarse, barking cough and difficult breathing, occurring chiefly in infants and children. which backs up the speculations in Correspondence in the British Medical Journal, Dec ...


3

I agree with @Carey Gregory's answer. I can tell you how a man falling only 30 feet landing on his back on concrete died. A 30 year old male working on the underside (?) of a bridge, unsecured, fell as above. There were no obvious external injuries. The skull was intact, etc. He arrived by ambulance unconscious and without a pulse. Advanced Trauma Life ...


3

Short answer: maybe a few, but not instantly. Nicotine poisoning exists but rarely is it fatal. Especially, when it is delivered through smoking. There have been very few incidents of death by nicotine poisoning reported. References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicotine_poisoning http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0379073809004459 http://...


3

If you think of committing suicide, you can find help here: 1-800-273-8255 No, it is not painful. In fact, opiates and and benzodiazepines are used for assisted suicide and for Palliative medicine. A 1992 nationwide study by one of the authors (G. van der Wal) on drugs used by Dutch general practitioners in euthanasia and physician-assisted ...


3

In 2018, approximately 7779 people died per day in the US as per the CDC National Vital Statistics System.


3

While hospitals, clinics, long term care homes and such are of course open and working seven days a week, administrative staff typically only work 5 days a week. So someone comes to work Monday and reports 3 deaths (that may actually have occurred on Saturday or Sunday.) They may not do that first thing Monday, they may have other things going on. ...


3

While people don't usually have a preference for dying on particular days determining how they died is subjected to delays. A medical examiner or other expert had to determine whether the death is from covid-19 or one of the many comorbid conditions that the person suffered from. Furthermore, there are deaths in the community that need to be examined. You ...


2

The problem is there are too many unknowns. First, the speed of clotting varies from person to person. There are lab tests that measure clotting time (e.g. INR), especially useful when a patient takes anticoagulants. One respondent mentioned the absence of anticoagulants, but anticoagulants include substances not specifically prescribed to reduce clotting, ...


2

Neither. You would either kill them with the first shock or just annoy them every day of their life. Human tissue can't adapt to electricity. It's either enough current to damage it or it's not. And if the path of the current is through the heart, the amount needed to disrupt the heart's electrical functioning is as little as 100 milliamps.


2

Yes, it's very realistic. The boys were apparently clinically dead when found. Clinical death means there is no pulse or respirations. Clinical death is not necessarily permanent. CPR, defibrillators, and drugs can sometimes reverse the situation. Clinical death is different from legal death, which is what happens when a doctor declares someone dead. The ...


2

As far as I know it depends on how much damage it has been done to the brain firstly and the other organs. Usually the first cells to die in the brain are those located in hypotalamus and they start dying within 3 minutes and as the lack of oxygen progresses other brain cells die to. The last important organ that is heart starts dying at 15 minutes. So ...


2

Although I doubt that term would be applied to a suicide in a modern country, death records can be unreliable in other times and other cultures when suicide was involved. 100+ years ago suicide was often considered shameful and embarrassing to the family, so it's possible the death record was falsified to protect the family name. Since we have no way of ...


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