For most people, no.
Prenatal vitamins usually contain folate acid, some also contain B12, iodine, and/or vitamin D. For deficiencies in the last three, usually, special supplements will be given.
However, certain medications actually mess with the foliate cycle in the body, and require patients to take supplemental folic acid. One of those is methotrexate. Some doctors prescribe higher dose folic acid to be taken once weekly, others recommend just taking a folic acid supplement daily - which are usually marketed as prenatal vitamins. Patients taking that often enjoy the irony of taking prenatal vitamins alongside a medication that is actively harmful to a pregnancy.
So it's rare, but possible.