New answers tagged

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Seasonal coronaviruses come back year after year and we continue to suffer with them Researchers do know that reinfection is an issue with the four seasonal coronaviruses that cause about 10 to 30% of common colds. These coronaviruses seem to be able to sicken people again and again, even though people have been exposed to them since childhood. "...


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This form of approach, called mitigation, was modelled and led to disease cases exceeding surge capacity of the health system by eight fold, and deaths of about 1.2M. That is why they changed to disease suppression. WHO Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Modelling MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis Abdul Latif Jameel Institute for ...


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Because we know its genomic sequence. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2720273/: Using fixed and frozen lung tissue of 1918 influenza victims, the complete genomic sequence of the 1918 influenza virus has been deduced. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the completed 1918 influenza virus genes shows them to be the most avian-like among the ...


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The SARS-CoV-2 virus infects cells that possess the ACE2 receptor but this is described as being present mainly in pneumocytes lining the alveoli, vascular endothelium, cardiac tissue, and small bowel luminal cells. The virus appears to preferentially attack well differentiated cells. There are also some ACE2 containing cells in the respiratory epithelium. ...


3

You are searching for the false-negative rate of these tests. A test resulting in a negative outcome while it should have been a positive outcome. A recent article stated that most of the false-negatives of COVID-19 tests are actually caused by not properly taking the samples from nose and throat. While I cannot find the original article I've got this ...


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As per the US CDC non-detectable viral load means effectively no transmission possible (there are not many absolutes in medical sciences). See also: https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/art/index.html Numerous campaigns have been created on these findings: http://www.aidsmap.com/about-hiv/undetectable-viral-load-and-transmission-information-people-hiv https://www....


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From {1}: In COVID-19, The University of Padua, Veneto Region and the Red Cross tested the populationof Vò, Italy, 3300 people, to establish the natural history of the virus, the transmission dynamicsand categories of risk. "they found >50 of those who tested positive to be asymptomatic” according to Professor Sergio Romagnani. FYI: How can one predict ...


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Yes, it is possible to have no symptoms and be infected, various sources, e. g. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32179137. As for testing after 'clearing the infection', this would be what a serological scarring test would look for, e. g.: https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/27/serological-tests-reveal-immune-coronavirus/ https://www.contagionlive.com/...


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The confusion exists because there are conflicting pronouncements from various authoritative sources but also conflicting pronouncements from the same authority. Covid-19 is a respiratory infection spread by droplets that can be aerosolized (nuclear droplets) in certain situations such as by flushing toilets or in certain medical procedures such as ...


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I understand what you're trying/hoping to do here, but the correction method you try to apply is unsuitable. You need to explicitly account for the time delays to deaths and consider a confined population of cases or try to infer from a closed sample a correction factor to apply to the open-ended/ongoing epidemic. Such a study was recently published based ...


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The text does not say that more diluted bleach is more effective at killing viruses (or bacteria, or yeast, for that matter). I'm quoting: ...A tenfold dilution of bleach, which subsequently mixed with an equal volume of RSV-containing medium (so in fact a twentyfold dilution) eradicated all of the virus. A 100-fold dilution of bleach killed 100% of the ...


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This video by Kurzgesagt gives a good overview of how the COVID-19 infection process works. The damage it causes to the lungs seems to the result of it damaging the cells that create a protective lining of your lungs; this happens both directly as a result of their infections of these cells, as well as by causing the immune system to attack healthy cells. By ...


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Household bleach is usually at 5% concentration of sodium hypochlorite. Data from disinfection of other coronaviruses indicates that dilutions of 1:100 are still effective. Higher concentrations of bleach are difficult to manage as they release chlorine gas and are irritant to the mucous membranes, lungs and eyes. The bleach works as a potent oxidizer of ...


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The answer is NO. It only take one successful viroid particle to start an infection. Then you can always argue about how many particles you need to breath in, in order to ensure (statistically) that one sticks to your cellular lining and membrane to actually start the infection process. That's a different question.


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There are clearly people who have antibodies to viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 who have no history of clinical symptoms. Presumably, they have been exposed to a low viral load which has been sufficient to trigger an immune response without the virus infecting sufficient cells to cause symptoms. That is why they are saying that you don't need testing if you ...


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From your own data 19% of patients need hospital care. Hospital care is usually required when the patient develops significant shortness of breath. Shortness of breath implies hypoxemia. Hypoxaemia is caused by a disturbance of gas exchange in the lungs. All of these patients have pneumonia with the early CT changes of upper peripheral parts of the lungs ...


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In an ideal world everyone would have full body Ebola type protection. In the world of practicality, the WHO has advised that this is a droplet, and surface spread infection. However, it is not discounting the possibility of aerosols especially during some medical procedures eg. induced coughing, and then a potentially ill fitting mask and goggles may not ...


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The EPA has a list of products known to be effective against COVID-19. I can't tell you if your Lysol cleaner is one of them -- the list includes 14 different products sold under the Lysol brand, using five different active ingredients. Any cleaning product should have instructions on how to use it safely. As long as you follow those instructions, both ...


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One of the issues with COVID-19 is the fact that it is transmissible even by people who are asymptomatic. You've probably heard about R0, which is the basic reproduction rate of a disease, that takes into account transmission modes and contact rate, among other things. I'm not an epidemiologist, but I'm operating under the assumption that someone who is ...


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There has been at least one phylogenetic study of 48 near complete samples of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. and a more up to date link at Genomic epidemiology of novel coronavirus https://arxiv.org/abs/2002.08802


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The best theoretical model we have is that the SARS and SARS-CoV-2 viruses knock out the ACE2 receptor found on numerous tissues including alveolar cells, and myocytes, and intestinal luminal cells. If those cells have died then they need to be replaced, and if and until when that happens there will be reduced organ function. CT scans of recovered patients ...


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Now to address the whole debate about using respirators and masks. You absolutely want them. There has been a narrative throughout the western world that you don't need them, and they don't work. This is not the case. The CDC and WHO tell ordinary people to not wear respirators, but both organizations have political agendas and have frankly done a terrible ...


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I think it's a great idea. It protects your eyes from respiratory droplets and keeps you from touching your face. I don't know how well it would work from keeping droplet from reaching your mouth, but probably pretty well, especially if you used it with an N95 respirator. It might be a little shocking/intimidating to people, so I would only use it in ...


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This drug is not one of the candidates for the WHO mega study "Solidarity" nor do I see it in any other prospective trial. Without trial data your question can not be answered. WHO and partners are organizing a study to compare untested treatments throughout several countries. “This large, international study is designed to generate the robust data we ...


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To add to Philipp Leitl's good and cautionary answer: Microwave ovens work by causing polar molecules in the food being cooked, e.g. water and fats, to rotate, according to: Why does microwave heat up things so much more quickly than visible light? This rotational movement provides the heating effect. I would not be sure that the chemical make-up of ...


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There is a report from Taiwan where it was described that installing hand wash stations in the emergency department was the only infection control measure which was significantly associated with the protection from healthcare workers from acquiring the SARS-CoV, indicating that hand hygiene can have a protective effect Healthcare workers are at risk of ...


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does that mean every one in the world at some point has to get infected until a vaccine is invented? No. There are many infectous diseases which are only regional, or have been almost eradicated. Countries free of (this or that) disease need to act quickly on imported cases, if the disease is highly infectuous. On the other hand, if the spread of a ...


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"Situations Leading to Reduced Effectiveness of Current Hand Hygiene against Infectious Mucus from Influenza Virus-Infected Patients", a study published in "MSphere", compared using "antiseptic hand rubbing" (hand sanitizer) against "antiseptic hand washing" (washing hands with antiseptic or antimicrobial soap), and found that washing hands is effective at ...


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If you’re young and healthy with only mild symptoms, your doctor will likely advise you to isolate yourself at home and to limit contact with others in your household. You’ll likely be advised to rest, stay well hydrated, and to closely monitor your symptoms. This means that if you have mild symptoms, yes, you will eventually "cure" yourself, the same way ...


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You should read the whole article: Things You Should Never Microwave ... - Clothing and other large fabric items The problem with microwaves is that they are not heating any item put inside them homogeneously but create "hot spots" instead. The image shows a simulation of the electric field inside a microwave oven (taken from wikipedia). Therefore, ...


2

This seems like what you are after. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC523567/


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All interferons interfere with viral replication but until the Cubans show that their drug Interferon alpha 2B is any better than anything else, then there's nothing to recommend it over anything else used in the treatment of COVID-19. The list of drugs recommended by CPAM are: For direct antiviral treatment of SARS-CoV-2, CPAM recommends use of ...


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There is no published data whether Hydroxychloroquine or anti-viral drugs can be used to prevent infection in an immune naive population. We await clinical trials but the best hope usually has always been vaccination. Trials have now started with healthcare workers who are exposed to covid-19 patients to take either prophylactic placebo or ...


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It's a virus. and patients recover because the immune system creates antibodies to dismantle the virus, and prevent it from re-infecting other cells. However, many viruses the body can not clear such as hepatitis B, C, HIV, and H. Zoster. The fact that patients are recovering indicates that they are largely clearing the virus though there are sporadic ...


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New research from China indicates that the novel coronavirus is also spread by fecal-oral transmission, not just by respiratory droplets or environmental contact. Hong Shan, MD, PhD, of Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, and colleagues noted that the gastrointestinal tract is a welcoming environment for the ...


1

I doubt we have data to answer this question but since flu like illnesses keep recurring year after year as the virus mutates then it seems unlikely that exposure to something which most people get has had any benefit to those being exposed to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. In general, estimates suggest that 2% of the population are healthy carriers ...


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Here's an article that I found helpful, to understand why washing hands with soap is so helpful, and how it helps (Pall Thordarson is a professor of chemistry at the University of New South Wales, Sydney): Why does soap work so well on the Sars-CoV-2, the coronavirus and indeed most viruses? The short story: because the virus is a self-assembled ...


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I think the claim about viruses always being destructive isn't a good starting assumption for a question. For several reasons: In the sense that OP is probably considering, it isn't true. Counterexample, see below (and there are also other uses we put viruses to). In a wider sense, life is always destructive in that a living organism uses energy, substances,...


1

Reproduction numbers First of all, the basic reproduction number ($R_0$) refers to the contageous person meeting susceptible people only: the expected number of cases directly generated by one case in a population where all individuals are susceptible to infection. So $R_0$ is not affected by vaccination status (or acquired immunity) of the population, but ...


4

Yes, the virus can be made un-harmful by soap and water. From the Economist: The outer proteins sit athwart a membrane provided by the cell in which the virion was created. This membrane, made of lipids, breaks up when it encounters soap and water, which is why hand-washing is such a valuable barrier to infection. This should give you enough key ...


4

There are obvious sufficient data and enough evidence that all virus are transmitted by droplet infection (body contact) and shake hands. Washing hand makes sense as the infection is happening mostly yourself if you have contact with your hands in your face, mouth, nose, eyes. So don't shake hands, clean your hands by washing or desinfecting after ...


1

China has sent 67 ECMO machines to Hubei, said Luo Junjie, an official from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, adding that the ministry will import more ECMO machines for Hubei and Wuhan, the capital city of the province.Mar 4, 2020 http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-03/04/c_138843056.htm this doesn't tell how many ECMO machines ...


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The purpose is to stop the spreading of this new virus - j because there are so many uncertainties about the death ratio how dangerous it will be how strong other will be infected and because there are limited places in the hospitals for new patients because of lacking medical specialists, helpers, nurses, medicine, masks because of lacking test kits, hot ...


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The virus causing COVID-19 infects the respiratory tract. It is spread in droplets of moisture when an infected person sneezes, coughs, and exhales. These droplets can be inhaled directly and can also end up on surfaces, where they can be picked up on your hands and then spread to your face. The WHO recommends hand washing and avoiding touching your face ...


1

Such claims about drinking water to prevent COVID-19 also appeared online, but major health organizations do not support them. Health experts say drinking water every 15 minutes does not prevent coronavirus infection (AFP Fact Check, March 9, 2020) Multiple posts on Facebook and Twitter shared hundreds of times in the Philippines claim that doctors in ...


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Most of the COVID-19 deaths in Washington involve a single nursing home, where the virus spread widely before being detected. The patients at that facility are in a high-risk category for this disease due to their advanced age; there is no similar cluster of cases at a nursing facility elsewhere in the US, therefore it is not surprising that the mortality ...


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There are three possibilities when someone is coughing on the bus: they don't have Coronavirus -- or even a virus at all. I coughed a lot when my lungs were full of tumours. Some people cough when their asthma is acting up. This is by far the most common case. they do have Coronavirus and are not wearing a mask. You are more than 2 metres away from them. ...


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If we compare Covid19 to SARS or MERS - COVID19 seems to have a R0 slightly higher than SARS but lower than MERS. From various sources it appears that COVID-19 could be between 2 and 7, so compariable to diseases such as mumps and diphtheria in spread. Infection fatality rates vary wildly right now as the sample size is very small, but from 0.2% up to 18% (...


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