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9

The TH1/TH2 model of T-cell responsiveness can be summarized as TH1 being the "antiviral/antibacterial" immune response and TH2 is the "antiparasite" immune response against worms and other multicellular parasites (though, as with most biology, lines drawn like this are always subject to exceptions). These separate pathways counteract ...


8

This general-audience article from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia gives a good overview of reasons to believe that long-term side effects are unlikely. To summarize its two main points: Previous vaccine research and development has found that most side effects occur within about two months. The FDA approval process for COVID vaccines required the ...


6

You say: I can't find any evidence or articles that specifically confirm that our immune system won't start targeting healthy ligands, such as hormones, other proteins, or even pharmaceutical drugs assuming they may have a similar enough structure to the mRNA-manufactured spike protein. "mRNA-manufactured" is a red herring here. If the spike ...


6

Basically neither of your hypotheses is correct. A piece of mRNA isn't usually destroyed after one transcription. Nor does it create an "infinite loop" in the cell. Instead there's a balance between transcription and decay. The mechanisms for mRNA decay are fairly complex in themselves. (see link for details) For vaccines, it's obviously beneficial ...


5

Viruses of the herpes family tend to be capable of causing long-term issues due to their particular habit of latent infections. Shingles is a specific well-known consequence, caused by reactivation of the same virus that causes chickenpox (most often in children). Epstein-Barr virus is another herpesvirus that has been associated with long-term symptoms. ...


5

mRNA (messenger RNA) is the "working copy" of gene that the machinery in the cell's cytoplasm uses to direct synthesis of a protein (translation). Thus, if you can get a suitable-looking mRNA into the cytoplasm (e.g. by coating it with NLP), the cell will start translating it. DNA, on the other hand, first needs additional machinery to make an mRNA ...


4

Regarding the steps, I'll get to #1 a bit later. It's actually a bit subtle how mRNA vaccines work in re #2, i.e. actually making sure translation happens. It also makes sense to discuss this first; otherwise, there's not much point in delivering something that doesn't work. A popsci explanation "from the helicopter" is that one needs to use "...


4

You are confused. The VUI-202012/01 strain has some 17 mutations, some of which have been seen separately before. See COG UK summary: COG UK suspects that that many mutations have accumulated in a chronic case of infection which served as a "living lab". ECDC give this approximation of the spread of the new kid: In contrast G614 has been dominant ...


3

No it won't stop mutating. Mutating is a feature of life with nucleic acids, no matter if you are a virus, bacterium, archaea, fungi, plant or animal. You can check on mutation rates in organisms with a simple google search for the terms "mutation rate (species of interest)"


3

Even assuming the same ecological conditions, efficacy of a vaccine is in a (dose-dependent trade-off with side effects. (This was e.g. easily shown in the phase I/II trials of Moderna's vaccine.) Even for the exact same tech/vaccine, manufacturers may choose different points along this curve. Furthermore, the amount of "training" and thus ...


3

Summary: To answer the bounty question I am looking for a simple and straightforward answer which describes in a few sentences the mechanism by which the adaptive immune system, informed by a vaccine, would prevent infection of the epithelia of the respiratory system by a virus. a (not the) mechanism by which the adaptive immune system affects respiratory ...


2

On the other hand, if you want to ask if anybody is working a protein sub-unit vaccine, the answer is yes, NIH announced on Dec 28 that Novavax began phase III trials for NVX-CoV2373. (They are actually conducting concurrent trials in the UK and Mexico too.) According to a story in Science, Novavax uses armyworm moth cells to grow these proteins; the spike ...


2

I am not a doctor, nor medical scientist. But I have read this article from pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32653658/ which leads to https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346807/ . As you may read at the end of: As is well known, preexisting antibodies, memory B cells, and memory T cells are three key components against viral reinfection. ...


2

I cannot easily find any research assessing the relationship between lockdowns and virus contagion/mortality. Try looking at it backwards: what encourages mutations (some of which will render an organism more x (and/or y, and/or z) and some of which will render it less x (and/or y, and/or z). To mutate, an organism must reproduce in order to pass on a ...


2

While I realize this doesn't answer your question in the narrow way that you frame it ("I do not believe that we can exclude accidental errors as a potential cause" as you put it), I'm offering this as a frame challenge to the theory that accidental i.v. injection is the main reason why STT occurred in those patients. There's a 2020-published study ...


2

No, not really. Cellular senecence is defined as an cessation in division of the cell. Viruses viruses are obligate parasites which don't contain any metabolic pathways themselves and rely on cellular machinery to replicate themselve, so once they exit the cell, there is no metabolic activity attributable to the virus. Because of this there is no possibility ...


1

The Center's for Disease Control and Prevention provides recommendations for all vaccines appropriate for adults. For HPV: Age 15 years or older at initial vaccination: 3-dose series at 0, 1–2 months, 6 months (minimum intervals: dose 1 to dose 2: 4 weeks / dose 2 to dose 3: 12 weeks / dose 1 to dose 3: 5 months; repeat dose if administered too soon) In ...


1

There are experimental vaccines that deliver DNA of interest (e.g. that would express spike protein) merely tied to a plasmid encapsulated in a LNP (liquid nano-particle). Some animal trials indicate that LNP-encapsulated plasmid-DNA vaccines would achieve approximately 10-20 times better delivery efficiency than "naked" plasmid-DNA injection, i.e. ...


1

Yes. This recent Nature article mentions a few potential hypotheses for vaccine-related blood clots, including the hypothesis in question here: One possible factor affecting the safety of adenoviral vaccines is how they are administered. The COVID-19 vaccines are given as injections into muscle, but if the needle happens to puncture a vein, the vaccine ...


1

Since there are a number of vaccine technologies being used for Covid vaccines, a complete answer is complex. Perhaps the simplest situation is that of the mRNA vaccines (e.g. Pfizer and Moderna). With these, a short piece of mRNA (the genetic "working instructions" that direct the production of one or more proteins) is injected into a person, ...


1

After being educated on the issue by a virologist (Georges Natsoulis), I understand the question needs answers at two completely different levels. First, our very own human genome has been in good part developed in conjunction with the input of left over viruses. Thus, without the input from viruses we would not be who we are. Second, viruses within our ...


1

No, there is no infection "found or originating primarily or solely in the nape". Any skin infection (eg. Staphyloccus, Streptococcus) can affect the nape of the neck. Hope this helps.


1

Your premise that this virus is "new" in the way you imagine it is false. The virus that causes COVID-19 is very similar to other viruses we already know about. Similar enough to one that we even call the virus "SARS-CoV-2", the "2" indicating it's the second such virus in that group, and also similar to another virus named MERS-...


1

A relevant, unique research paper I found with particular relevance for COVID-19: Hypothesis: Nasal vs. oral inhalation accounts for the severity of COVID-19. People who lose their sense of smell apparently generally experience milder cases than those who do not. This paper theorizes that when a higher percentage of coronavirus particles enter through the ...


1

I agree with Mark, administration route probably doesn't matter because none of these were shown to work. ColdZyme has an open-label trial but which found no reduction in incidence, and only a very modest reduction in symptom duration. They do mention and even have more recent in vitro trials, but those results insofar don't hold in vivo for reasons that ...


1

I can't find any evidence that the oral sprays you list work. The ColdZyme website, for example, lists exactly zero studies, and specifically disclaims being a medicine. Taffix claims that a number of studies have been done, but the only in vivo study was very low quality, being an unblinded study. In short, these give strong evidence of being "snake ...


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