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Basically, the immune system does function in the respiratory epithelium contra to your theory, and the usual cascade of innate mechanisms triggering the adaptive ones also works in the epithelium: Several immune cell populations are resident in epithelium including CD103+ CD8+ T cells and CD103+ conventional dendritic cell populations which act as sentinel ...


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Basically neither of your hypotheses is correct. A piece of mRNA isn't usually destroyed after one transcription. Nor does it create an "infinite loop" in the cell. Instead there's a balance between transcription and decay. The mechanisms for mRNA decay are fairly complex in themselves. (see link for details) For vaccines, it's obviously beneficial ...


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You say: I can't find any evidence or articles that specifically confirm that our immune system won't start targeting healthy ligands, such as hormones, other proteins, or even pharmaceutical drugs assuming they may have a similar enough structure to the mRNA-manufactured spike protein. "mRNA-manufactured" is a red herring here. If the spike ...


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On the other hand, if you want to ask if anybody is working a protein sub-unit vaccine, the answer is yes, NIH announced on Dec 28 that Novavax began phase III trials for NVX-CoV2373. (They are actually conducting concurrent trials in the UK and Mexico too.) According to a story in Science, Novavax uses armyworm moth cells to grow these proteins; the spike ...


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I'm not sure if you're only asking about diseases that have vaccines (or more specifically, if you're asking if getting COVID will make a vaccine less effective), but dengue virus famously exhibits "antibody-dependent enhancement" of disease, meaning that it's typically worse each time you get the disease. There's no vaccine for dengue, but if ...


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Good evening! Vaccines do not cure. Vaccination is necessary in order for the body to get over the virus in a mild form and develop immunity to the pathogen


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Thanks, Bryan and Carey for the heads up. Based on your responses, I did a bit of further research and finally understand it. The confusion was about the difference between these vaccines and antivirals. I was assuming whatever the scientists have been working on were antivirals. But I was wrong, they are not antivirals, but vaccines.


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The formula used for vaccine efficacy is as follows: VE = (ARU - ARV) / ARU (VE: vaccine efficacy, ARU: attack rate in unvaccinated participants, ARV: attack rate in vaccinated participants) This is equivalent to: VE = 1 - RR (RR: Relative risk) The attack rate is simply the number of new cases divided by the total group size. ARV = 39 / 21,314 = 0....


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The paper itself describes how this is calculated (see the Methods section), but also see this Q&A at Biology.SE talking more broadly about how efficacy has been defined in these vaccine trials: https://biology.stackexchange.com/q/96941/27148 They define efficacy as the fraction of infected in the vaccine compared to placebo categories, normalized for ...


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The "-meran" suffix was selected by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a common stem suffix for mRNA drug products in 2016 (though the technology originated in the early 1990s). Curevac were involved in pioneering this technology and they made the application. See this article announcing the news. From the WHO guidance on International ...


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As I understand the matter: there are case of C19 where the same person is re-infected after recovery Moderna / Pfizer vaccines tout 90%+ efficacy. If this is the case and 90%+ efficacy holds for recovered patients, then it follows that yes, it is reasonable to expect a benefit of a COVID-19 vaccination if one had COVID-19.


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Don't all coronaviruses share this same spike protein? No they don't, although the spikes do share a "shaft" fragment "S2" that is recognized by some anti-bodies across several coronavirues. This cross-reactivity was even in blood samples collected as far back as 2011, but it was at low levels. Two preliminary retrospective studies in ...


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An article on Medium had a Q&A with various medical and public policy experts about the vaccine and its rollout. One of the questions was exactly what you asked. The answer is basically "probably not but it might help against SARS and the research could lead to multi-coronavirus vaccines later." Here is the main part of the response: “We do ...


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To supplement Bryan's answer (although I'm not going to say anything fundamentally different here), according to their proponents, mRNA vaccines are considered the safest genetic vaccines (in this integration regard) because mRNA transcription ("transfection") to proteins happens outside the nucleus. Quoting from a review mRNA vaccines do not ...


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Roman Zieliński seems to be intentionally misleading you by making an implausible circumstance that is technically possible sound like a likely outcome. This strategy is not unusual among people who argue against vaccination, because they have very little actual science to argue based on. The Central Dogma as stated by Crick says nothing about RNA vs DNA. It ...


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We don't know, and may never know or won't know for a long time. The reason we think the recently approved mRNA vaccines are effective is due to randomized controlled trials. You take a population of people who haven't previously gotten COVID-19, give half the vaccine and half the placebo, and determine efficacy based on the ratio of subsequent infections in ...


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Two things that come to mind: Unlike COVID-19, the herpes virus does not completely shut down society. So there's much more incentive and hence funding to finding a vaccine for COVID-19. We already have researched (but not completed) vaccines for other corona-type diseases like SARS and MERS, and luckily this knowledge helped in accelerating the process of ...


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I don't have a concrete technical answer to this (regarding CDC's precise definition--they have a lot of pages on V-safe as how to participate in it, but no other published results besides those slides, it seems), but note that the same presentation puts anaphylaxis in a separate category (there were 6 cases in the same sample). As far as the (higher) ...


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Regarding the steps, I'll get to #1 a bit later. It's actually a bit subtle how mRNA vaccines work in re #2, i.e. actually making sure translation happens. It also makes sense to discuss this first; otherwise, there's not much point in delivering something that doesn't work. A popsci explanation "from the helicopter" is that one needs to use "...


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There are no other mRNA vaccines with an allowance for use yet. There have been promising tests before COVID-19 though. See this review article: Pardi, N., Hogan, M., Porter, F. et al. mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology. Nat Rev Drug Discov 17, 261–279 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd.2017.243 Available here (Last accessed December 2020)


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This actually has been the subject of a recent debate/article in Nature. The answer is that the approach varies, depending on the perceived risk for the subjects... One method previously used is to create a 3rd arm for participants on the placebo that receive[d] the actual vaccine later. Once a vaccine is granted emergency approval, there is pressure on ...


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