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Re: If so, then there is no need to have a third booster shot. Why do you think this? Consider chicken pox/shingles. Clearly, infection with chicken pox once leads to immunity lasting for many many decades. However, that immunity can wane, allowing shingles to develop. Immunity is not an all or nothing status. Also, consider which specific variant is used ...


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This is a link to the full-test of the article whose results are presented in the post. https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/full/10.7326/M21-1577 The study reported used a study design called a “test negative case-control” design. References 15-17 in the published explain the “test negative case-control design and the rationale for its use to evaluate vaccine ...


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A few-year-old review that might be useful is: Pardi, N., Hogan, M., Porter, F. et al. mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology. Nat Rev Drug Discov 17, 261–279 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd.2017.243 The tricky part of creating an mRNA vaccine once the "platform" has been developed remains exactly what mRNA sequence do you put into it? ...


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From the links you've supplied, none of these other vaccines have gotten further than phase 2 trials yet. Most seem to only have phase 1 trials started or merely planned so far. These vaccines are not yet available because they have not completed clinical trials that demonstrate safety and efficacy.


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Trivial in concept, sure, but not necessarily trivial in practice. It's not about just producing a handful of doses in a proof-of-concept; if you want to produce a different version of a vaccine at scale it means either building a bunch of new equipment or retooling a previous production line to make the whole vaccine. Since only a minority of people are ...


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We can't really measure vaccine efficacy outside of trials the same way it is measured in trials. In trials, you give some people the vaccine and others not, and then compare the two groups. When you start vaccinating the public, you don't have a randomized control group anymore, you have differences in the groups including A) Higher vaccination rates among ...


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No vaccine in history has ever been 100% effective. It's not reasonable to expect it. All of the vaccines being distributed for which data are public are highly effective, though. This Q&A over at Biology.SE explains how "efficacy" is calculated in the trials: https://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/96941/what-does-vaccine-efficacy-mean ...


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It's impossible to say based on the available data. The adverse-event reports merely show correlation, not causation. One common confounding factor is the population receiving the vaccine: the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines were the first ones approved, so people with elevated risk from COVID-19 tended to get these vaccines. Many of these risk factors are ...


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