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6

What you're describing has been known since antiquity. What you first describe (an arc-like enlargening area of blurry vision) has been called a scintillating scotoma and artists and patients alike have tried to describe it with interesting results: It is important to note that this happens in both eyes simultaneously, so that the same part of the ...


6

CT brain at 31, what's the risk? Short answer: Very little, compared to overall cancer risk* Longer answer: Your girlfriend is concerned about increased risk of brain malignancy due to having a CT at age 31. This is something that the FDA has weighed in on in a helpful summary page: As in many aspects of medicine, there are both benefits and risks ...


5

Your question contains several parts. How is the process of the transvaginal ultrasound different than just a regular ultrasound? I imagine it's inserted into the vagina? Is it quite painful? What you call a "regular" ultrasound is known in medical practice as an transabdominal ultrasound. It is a very common procedure, which, depending on the ...


5

I am not a veterinary so I can't answer your question in particular. Though, maybe following points on the mechanisms of action of prednisolone might perhaps bring some clarifications: Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid. The effects of prednisolones are multiple and the antitumor effect of glucocorticoid has been investigated in many studies (most ...


4

Is screening a good thing? -Overall yes, but with caveats. First, take an extreme example of an individual undergoing a full body CT scan at least once a year, every year after the age of 50. The upside is potentially detecting some forms of cancer early on (although the FDA says there are no benefits for healthy individuals). The downside is increased ...


4

Overdiagnosis is not the same as misdiagnosis (for example, many people are concerned that ADHD is often misdiagnosed, but call it overdiagnosis.*) Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are intertwined. Diagnostic tests are considered "useful" if treatment decisions are affected by the results. Although it is extremely difficult to assess when overdiagnosis has ...


4

The term you're looking for is pericardial teratoma. Another related term you'll be interested in is fetus-in-fetu, which is essentially a parasitic twin growing somewhere within the body, usually the abdominal cavity. There have been at least two examples of pericardial teratomas that developed sufficiently to produce heart-like pumping activity. The ...


4

A polyp is a broad term that is defined only by its macroscopic appearance. So, I'll just repeat the definition provided in the question: A polyp is a mass that projects above a mucosal surface... to form a macroscopically visible structure. Polyps can be categorized by their microscopic (type of cell) characteristics, for example: Papillomas are ...


3

This is very broad as asked. I will answer with one example, there are others. Immunotherapy gets the patient's own immune system to destroy the tumours rather than the treatment itself destroying them. This might involve making the immune system more active, or interfering with the way that tumours hide or shield themselves from the immune system. For ...


3

It is impossible to answer these personal situations. In general, yes it is possible that no lymph nodes were removed during surgery. Whether that might be the case with your father, I simply cannot tell. Nx means "cancer in nearby lymph nodes cannot (or has not (yet)) be measured". Some lymph nodes might have been removed during surgery, but either for ...


3

In many cases yes, a tumor must be biopsied in order to determine exactly what type of tumor it is. Advanced imaging can, in some cases, diagnose a specific type of tumor. However, there are many chemotherapy agents that are very specific not just to a particular tumor, but a particular tumor with certain genetic factors (such as presence or lack of specific ...


3

Neurofibromatosis comes in three forms, one of which is called "Schwannomatosis". It usually develops in the patient's 20s or 30s and is characterized by people developing schwannomas. The most common symptom is pain. A study I could find: Clinical Features of Schwannomatosis: A Retrospective Analysis of 87 Patients recommends a proactive surveillance ...


2

In essence, neurofibromatosis is a disorder that makes nerve cells grow out of control and develop tumors. These tumors can be anywhere nerve cells are, so in the brain, spine, etc. Tumors, to most people, mean cancer, but cancers are a special (malignant) form of tumors. The tumors in neurofibromatosis may or may not develop into cancer. However, even if ...


2

These patients were all female, and the tumors are described as exceedingly rare. Were you looking for males? https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14668717 METHODS: A retrospective chart review from January 1946 through November 2002 identified 11 female patients with pure androgen-secreting adrenal tumors. RESULTS: The mean age was 23.4 years (...


2

The TL;DR answer is: yes, radiation can cause cancer, but no one knows for sure exactly what the risk is of one CT scan. Radiation (especially in fetuses/children) increases the likelihood of cancer. Our information comes mostly from atomic bomb survivors, people exposed at Chernobyl, people treated with high doses of radiation for cancer and other ...


2

Studies with high resolution intravital microscopy have shown that cancer cells in circulation can deform and squeeze through vessels as small as capillaries, which are usually 5-10 ┬Ám in diameter. A large number of factors contribute to whether a circulating tumor cell actually forms a metastatic tumor, including characteristics of the tumor cell, ...


1

The risk from a single CT exposure should realistically be estimated to be zero. The commonly used "linear no-threshold extrapolation model" to get to estimates of cancer risks due to exposure to low levels of radiation (of the order of 10 mSv or less) has no scientific basis whatsoever. E.g., observations of excess cancer cases after the Chernobyl ...


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