4

No, it's not true according to the CDC. The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with active TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. When you speak you force air out your lungs, and presumably some bacteria can be carried out in this fashion. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/exposed.htm


3

Yes, TB can affect bones (in extrapulmonary or more precisely osteoarticular TB), but that form is relatively rare nowadays [even more so in the West], and even rarer for the sternum to be affected. On the other hand, it is one of the ways in which ancient skeletons (or mummies) were diagnosed with TB, but sometimes confirming by some other means (e.g. PCR), ...


3

The T-spot blood test for tuberculosis is an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA or IFN-γ assay). There are two of these tests (Quantiferon and T-spot) with small differences, but the basic mechanism is the same and they are treated the same for the CDC, which writes: IGRAs, unlike the TB skin tests, are not affected by prior BCG vaccination and are not ...


3

First, tuberculosis is caused by a bacterium, not by a virus. There are a number of different skin tests used for tuberculosis. The common ones are the Mantoux test, the tine test, and the no-longer-used Heaf test. All three of them indicate potential tuberculosis infection by measuring the presence and/or size of the firm raised area at the injection ...


3

After some more google-research, I found this paper, published a couple of years after I received my BCG vaccination: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1745564/ The paper describes "multipuncture" as a method of delivering BCG as an alternative to the intradermal method, so apparently my memory was correct.


2

BCG vaccination appears to enhance the humoral response to general infection. There is said to be also enhanced response so therefore protection against influenza. The trial above is to see if it helps with a response against sars-cov-2. There is some evidence that BCG vaccination enhances the humoral immune response to other unrelated childhood ...


2

You don't specify which test was used to screen for TB, in this answer I will assume that Mantoux test was used. You probably were vaccinated using Calmette-Guérin vaccine. Unfortunately this has been proven not to give an efficacious immunity against TB infection. In this scenario there are two chances: You actually were exposed to M.Tuberculosis. The ...


2

Tuberculosis and scarring That scar on the X-rays is likely a leftover from either a lymphadenopathy or a lung cavity. A lymphadenopathy is a swelling of the lymph nodes and appears in almost all patients, a lung cavity occurs in about half the patients. Most people recover from tuberculosis with no further negative effects, but some scarring may remain ...


2

No, it is not compulsory for all the patients to have/develop a scar which is most probably the pulmonary fibrosis or might be residual parenchymal lesions. In certain cases, it is due to not doing the breathing exercises while taking the standard regime of HREZ (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide) Yes, it can get better(not completely ...


1

Yes, estimating the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection using the TST is not trivial. Use only of the TST to define latent tuberculosis infection requires specification of a cut-point for positivity. There is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity when selecting this cut-point. In prevalence surveys, this is usually >10 mm induration. ...


1

Since you wish to contribute to research, I suggest you go to PubMed and read as many recent papers published on the topic to acquaint yourself with the latest developments to see if there is anything that you can contribute towards.


1

The doctor should be able to differentiate between these two diseases. Crohn's: GI inflammatory disease Diagnosed through blood tests and/or stool sample and/or GI procedures (colonoscopy, endoscopy..) Symptoms related to the GI tract - abdominal pain, diarrhea Treatment options include: anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics such as cipro From WebMD: "...


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