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10

TSH has a quite important circadian rhythm. Most of the original research on it is not freely accessible, as open access wasn't really a thing when these studies were done, in the 80s, but this one is freely available: Physiological variations in thyroid hormones: physiological and pathophysiological considerations. There is a section on circadian and ...


9

Reference ranges vary by labs. In some assays, 35 IU/mL is still considered the upper limit of normal. The reason for the dramatic difference in reference ranges is the detection limit of the assay itself. As time progresses, assays become more sensitive to small titers of antibody. In labs using newer techniques, concentrations as low as 9 IU/mL can be ...


8

The relationship between thyroid function and body weight is bidirectional and complex. It is known for decades, if not centuries, that cretinism (only in the end of the 19th century to be associated to hypothyroidism) may be accompanied by weight gain and that thyrotoxicosis may result in weight loss. As early as in 1835 Robert J. Graves described that ...


6

First of all, thyroid hormones are actively taken up into cells and accumulate there. Therefore, the apparent volume of distribution for T4 is 10 liters rather than 5 liters (1). Secondly, I would assume a slightly lower proportion of free T4 (0.02%) (1). That results in 90 pmol/L. This is still above the reference range for FT4. However, T4 is rapidly ...


5

Thyroid function and serotonin activity are highly linked. Serotonin stimulates hypothalamic TRH (Thyroid Releasing Hormone) production, leading to an increase in TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) production from the pituitary. Serotonin stimulates hypothalamic TRH production which leads to an increase in TSH production from the pituitary. Adequate ...


5

There are several reasons why we can't specify the range here on Health SE, especially for anti-TPO Ab. The test method Antibodies are proteins, produced by our immune system. Determining the concentration of a specific protein is somewhat more difficult than determining the concentration of a smaller molecule. Still, there are various methods for this - ...


4

Drugs.com mentions that prolonged use of Lugol's solution (potassium iodide + iodine) can cause confusion, caused by potassium. In long-term treatment of Grave's disease (overactive thyroid), 10–400 mg iodide per day has been used (PubMed, 2107). Various drug websites do not mention psychosis, aggressiveness, illusions or irritability as a side effect of ...


4

Measurements will always have measurement errors, we distinguish between systematic errors and statistical errors due to noise, or other random effects than on average are zero. Usually the former type of error should not be in play, the tests will have been designed such that on average the tests results are correct. The latter type of error is always in ...


4

Is screening a good thing? -Overall yes, but with caveats. First, take an extreme example of an individual undergoing a full body CT scan at least once a year, every year after the age of 50. The upside is potentially detecting some forms of cancer early on (although the FDA says there are no benefits for healthy individuals). The downside is increased ...


4

Overdiagnosis is not the same as misdiagnosis (for example, many people are concerned that ADHD is often misdiagnosed, but call it overdiagnosis.*) Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are intertwined. Diagnostic tests are considered "useful" if treatment decisions are affected by the results. Although it is extremely difficult to assess when overdiagnosis has ...


3

The condition that you're asking about is called in the professional terminology: "madarosis" (but see the picture that I attached). As many proffessional books states, it's common in hypothyroidism, and they don't say it about hyperthyroidism. Then it make sense that it's not common in hyperthyroidism. But in medicine always can be exceptions. Regarding ...


3

The main risk is to children and pregnant women associating with the person receiving I-131 treatment. Since I-131 is excreted in bodily fluids and taken up into the thyroid, those susceptible populations are at increased risk for thyroid cancer if they ingest contaminated bodily fluids. The person receiving the treatment is not because the cells that ...


2

OK. I'll tackle your question in two parts.... The baking soda part: If you've read the source article cited by you till the end, you will understand that oral sodium bicarbonate, through correction of metabolic acidosis, improved thyroid function in CKD patients. So...the so called helpful effect which you've mentioned is seen only in patients with chronic ...


2

The relation between TSH and free T4 is bidirectional and complex [1–4]. TSH stimulates the secretion of T4 from the thyroid gland. Immediately after being released into the bloodstream the vast majority of T4 is bound to plasma proteins including albumin, thyroxin binding globulin (TBG) and transthyretin (TTR, formerly called thyroxine-binding prealbumin or ...


2

TSH concentration is subject to both circadian variation (i.e. a rhythm with a period of one day) and ultradian variation (i.e. faster oscillations). This fact is illustrated by the following figure: This illustration was generated by computer simulations. Model 4 integrates long and ultra-short feedback control of TSH release. The pattern generated by ...


2

This also depends on the question if hypothyroidism is subclinical or overt. Recently, the European Thyroid Association has published a guideline on the management of subclinical hypothyroidism. In asymptomatic patients thyroid function tests (TFTs) should be repeated in 6 months intervals. Decisions shouldn't be based on TSH levels alone, but also on ...


2

It is directed that way due to the impact of having food in your stomach. It requires an empty stomach for adequate absorption of the drug. Waiting the 30 mins - 1 hour means that there's enough time for the drug to begin being absorbed before the food dilutes this. It also requires waiting at least three to four hours before taking any supplements that ...


2

The personal set-point of thyroid homeostasis may differ between individuals [1, 2]. Multiple studies showed that the intra-individual variation of both TSH and peripheral thyroid hormones is smaller than the inter-individual variation [3, 4]. Therefore, for individuals the range of optimality is smaller than the width of the corresponding reference range (...


2

This constellation may result from at least five reasons: Hypothesis #0: Both conditions (thyroid nodules and symptoms of hyperthyroidism) are independent. Hyperthyroid symptoms including anxiety, hair loss, fatigue and palpitations are unspecific. Although they are typical for thyrotoxicosis, they may also result from other conditions, e.g. masked ...


2

Normal. A result of 9 where the reference range is 0 - 34 indicates that you're within the normal range. For this test, an abnormal result would be a value over 34 because it's not possible to have a result below zero. Keep in mind that each testing lab can different reference ranges, and they can differ over time too.


1

This study from Australia https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2010/193/7/iodine-toxicity-soy-milk-and-seaweed-ingestion-associated-serious-thyroid indicates that iodine toxicity has been documented in people consuming soy milk made with kombu and illustrates the dangers of importing a foreign diet or manufactured food substance. We report a series of cases of ...


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