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11

This is a broad question, but here are just a few major things to take into consideration after a surgical procedure. Early mobility has been shown for many years to be a major predictor of postoperative outcome, even in something like a hip fracture, where you would think rest was mandatory. The rapidity with which one returns to preoperative levels of ...


11

Top quality resources for videos will be found at sites from surgical academies, which often offer free or low-price subscriptions to students/residents/trainees: American College of Surgeons curriculum for residents at https://cine-med.com/acsonline/ American College of Surgeons Journal at https://www.journalacs.org/featuredvideo Journal of Trauma and ...


9

Initially surgeons did wear white in the operating theater, but there were two large problems with this. Firstly, under the bright lights, the white reflects too much light making an inordinate amount of glare making it difficult to see. Secondly, the white cloth highlighted the red blood which many people found objectionable. As a result, most operating ...


8

LASIK is an acronym for Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis, with Keratomileusis meaning surgical improvement of the cornea's refractive capabilities, i.e. usually to overcome the defects of myopia (short-sightedness), hyperopia (long-sightedness) and astigmatism (distorted vision). The process involves first cutting a corneal flap to allow access to the ...


8

In short, by having fewer or less serious risk factors than the other matching recipients currently on the transplant waiting list. Age is a risk factor that goes into the calculation, not a contraindication. Age is not a contraindication to transplantation but increasing age is an incremental risk factor[5] and it is often associated with other ...


7

Not necessarily. Here are some examples that aren't good candidates for closing with sutures: A wound that is much wider than it is deep-- a bad road rash abrasion, for example. A wound with extremely fragile or messy margins (I treated a patient a few weeks ago whose food processor turned on while her hand was in there scooping food out). A wound that ...


7

You're describing an unexpected intra-operative finding. The possibility of unexpected findings (and their treatment) is usually discussed during the consent for the original procedure. Of course, in this situation, there was no initial discussion. The way this sort of issue is usually framed in medical ethics uses a framework of four principles (see ...


6

In 2013, a systematic review and meta-analysis (see ref in source) examined the long term outcome of catheter ablation in patient with atrial fibrillation. They first looked at single procedure success rates (=percentage of patients free of atrial arrhythmia or not requiring a second procedure at 12 months) and reported that the pooled overall success rate ...


6

What happens when a blood vessel is cut during surgery? Blood vessels (not just veins, but arteries also) are transected (cut), ligated (tied off), and/or cauterized (burned closed) in just about every surgical procedure ever. When done appropriately, this does not cause a problem because there is more than one path from the heart to the tissue and more ...


5

Roughly speaking, it appears that about 30-40% of patients in stage IV will survive for 5 years or more depending on where the cancer originated. This reference provides details.


5

When you browse through Pubmed, there are two articles which provide some insights for your question: Shah U, Mandl L, Mertelsmann-Voss C, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus is not a risk factor for poor outcomes after total hip and total knee arthroplasty. Lupus. 2015;24(9):900-908. doi:10.1177/0961203314566635. 1 They have done a case-control study ...


5

Which medical specialist should be consulted for anal polyp? A physician specialised in disorders of the colon, rectum and anus might be the person of choice. This could be a proctologist (a physician specialised in proctology), or if this speciality is not recognised/available in your country, this could be a colorectal surgeon. In some cases (depending ...


5

Haglund's syndrome is defined as soft tissue and bony abnormalities in the retrocalcaneal region such as retrocalcaneal bursitis, superficial tendo Achilles bursitis, and thickening and/or inflammation of the Achilles tendon. Patients with Haglund's syndrome show a prominent bony contour of the posterior calcaneus. Below an MRI showing typical Haglund's ...


5

What is a stye? A stye is an infection of the sebaceous glands at the base of the eyelashes or the apocrine sweat glands on the margin of the eyelid. Styes are caused by the gland becoming blocked by cell debris or sebum, a natural oil produced by the body. The stye generally appears on the interior or margin of the eyelid as a small whitish colored ...


5

Removing veins impairs blood flow to that area, but since the varicose veins aren't really getting blood efficiently to their locality anyway, I wouldn't call the lack of perfusion from removing them a drawback, per se. Some complications can arise following surgery to remove varicose veins. Some of them are pretty innocuous, like skin discoloration, but ...


5

It simply means visually exposing the tissues the surgeon needs to operate on. For example, if the surgeon needs to cut or suture inside one of the chambers and it's full of blood, they would be unable to see the tissue they're working on; therefore, they expose the surgical field by aspirating (suctioning out) the blood blocking their view. https://medical-...


5

No. There is not a set standard for the safety of medical procedures. The risks of procedures varies and is balanced against the potential benefits of the procedure (which will also vary). Unlike medications or devices, procedures themselves are not subject to approval by a regulatory authority. The professional ethical standard here is informed consent, ...


4

Post-operative complications include the following: Visually significant wrinkles or striae in the flap (1%) Dislocated flap (early postoperative period) Infection (early postoperative period; very rare; < 0.02%) Diffuse intralamellar keratitis (< 0.1%) Epithelial ingrowth (early to late postoperative; 1-2%) Under/overcorrection (see results) Ectasia (...


4

These patients were staged on surgery. Typically whole tumor is excised with clear margins confirmed intraoperatively. Note the measurement is diameter of the primary tumor. Nodes and mets are assessed separately. As personal commentary, I would say characterization of the primary tumor (including diameter) is something you can be much more certain of than ...


4

The best way to answer this would depend on your reason for making the list, which I do not know. Also, I am not sure how to create an international list, as specialties within a country are defined by the training path and board exams, which do differ somewhat between countries. But you do have some misunderstandings on some of the fundamentals of this, ...


3

Brief description: LASEK and LASIK - cut a flap in the eye, use a laser to remove material underneath to reshape the lens and correct vision. LASIK has been around for a while, so there have been a lot of improvements and modifications, and there are a lot of variations of it. PRK - similar to LASIK, but no flap is cut. Instead a surface layer of cells is ...


3

This is a subject I'm very well versed in since I've had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and atrial flutter (AFL) for a number of years and I've undergone no fewer than five ablation procedures. However, I really can't improve on M. Arrowsmith's answer. It's pretty much spot on. However, I will add some thoughts you won't easily find in published ...


3

8th Month is ~ 32 Weeks, pregnancy is usually ~40 weeks Up to 15 weeks' gestation, suction-aspiration or vacuum aspiration are the most common surgical methods of induced abortion. (Healthwise, 2004) Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) consists of removing the fetus or embryo, placenta, and membranes by suction using a manual syringe, while electric vacuum ...


3

If observing surgery might cause you to faint then there are two things you can do: Avoid observing surgeries. Desensitize yourself with videos and photos of surgeries in a controlled environment where fainting won't injure you or disrupt an actual surgery. Number two is quite easy to accomplish in this era of the internet*. There are thousands of videos ...


3

There's a six month rule demanding abstinence from alcohol for liver transplants. I can't immediately find evidence of similar rules for other organs, but they might exist. There can also be a cooling-off period for plastic surgery, but that's not really a lifestyle test. It's kind of the opposite.


3

I have accepted an answer, but want to add one of my own with some more details I have observed as I go through the process (it's Day 5 today.) First, this is something you can do to help yourself feel better. Compared to lying in bed, in pain, bored, possibly lonely and scared, and not sure what happens next, just waiting to get better. Giving you ...


3

The bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. After a meal, fats trigger gallbladder contraction, which results in the release of the bile into the small intestine. The bile helps to digest fats. The liver is connected to the small intestine by the common bile duct. When your gallbladder is removed, the bile will flow from the liver via ...


3

Aspirin has a "blood thinning" effect; it inhibits platelet aggregation. Therefore, it gives a higher risk of bleeding in the period surrounding the surgery. I have not found a review about specifically cataract surgery, but this large trial (>10000 patients) shows that in noncardiac surgeries, aspirin gives an increased risk of major bleeding.


3

Previous estimates were at 1 in a 1000 patients (1‰) suffer from intraoperative awareness: The medical literature suggests that in- traoperative awareness with recall while under general anesthesia may occur to some degree at a frequency of approximately 1 – 2 in 1,000 anesthetics. Most patients experiencing intraoperative awareness do not feel any pain. ...


3

I believe the term you're looking for is cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD). This is a fairly non-technical explanation of the procedure. It can be left side only (LCSD), right side only (RCSD), or bilateral (BCSD). In short, it's a procedure of last resort to control ventricular arrhythmias when drugs and endocardial ablation procedures have failed.


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