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The formula used for vaccine efficacy is as follows: VE = (ARU - ARV) / ARU (VE: vaccine efficacy, ARU: attack rate in unvaccinated participants, ARV: attack rate in vaccinated participants) This is equivalent to: VE = 1 - RR (RR: Relative risk) The attack rate is simply the number of new cases divided by the total group size. ARV = 39 / 21,314 = 0....


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The paper itself describes how this is calculated (see the Methods section), but also see this Q&A at Biology.SE talking more broadly about how efficacy has been defined in these vaccine trials: https://biology.stackexchange.com/q/96941/27148 They define efficacy as the fraction of infected in the vaccine compared to placebo categories, normalized for ...


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