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To build off of what JohnP said, scientific evidence has a hierarchy of reliability. Some types of papers, by their very nature, are more academically rigorous and likely to lead you to the truth. Randomized controlled double-blind trials and meta-analyses are at the top of the hierarchy. These studies often have thousands of participants and are set up to ...


7

"Studies of one" are also known as case studies, N-of-1 studies or case reports. I will refer to them below as case reports, for simplicity. They vary in quality just like any other type of studies. Case reports have a place in biomedical research and can often be very valuable, widely cited and/or otherwise influential. Double-blind randomized controlled ...


6

You are seeing phosphenes. These have been described in medical notes for thousands of years They are assumed to be caused by random firing of optic nerves due to stray electrical stimulation in the brain, or pressure on the eye Other causes are; sudden changes in air pressure, moving from bright light outside into a dark room, violent body motions (like ...


5

No, there isn't, not in any meaningful way. "The placebo effect" is an umbrella term, used primarily in the media/pop science. That isn't to say it isn't real or valid, but it covers outcomes from a great many different studies. In drug trials, the effects of a drug are often compared to a placebo - a sugar pill/saline injection - even placebo surgery. ...


4

I would trust the professional organizations' websites and journals: American Academy of Dermatology http://www.AAD.org American Osteopathic College of Dermatology http://www.aocd.org/ American Journal of Clinical Dermatology https://link.springer.com/journal/40257 Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/...


4

Introduction The placebo effect is a very interesting thing to study. To keep this scientific, though, let's divide your question into three addressable points: Does the placebo effect work? Does the placebo effect work on you? Can the placebo effect be scientifically tested? If each of these points can be resolved as true, then it would be fair to call ...


3

The difference is that you are looking at a case study, versus a scientific research study. The basic difference is that a case study is an in depth look at a single instance of something which may not be repeatable by others, and a scientific study is a broader examination of a group with results and experiments that can be repeated by others. As an ...


2

At least for psychological study, it seem ethical to deliberately lying to the subjects, as long as the research is review through a committee about ethical issues. Source In medical study, I think instead of saying affirmatively "we guarantee that there will be no side effect", they can say "this is a new drug so we don't know much about its side effect, ...


2

There are 2 questions here: Is not disclosing potential side effects during a clinical trial ethical? What does the "informed consent" of a clinical trial say about disclosing side effects? According to Understanding Informed Consent by CenterWatch: If you have given consent to participate in a clinical trial...you are entitled to the following ...


1

The absolute key to know if ANY treatment is working would be to find out that things get better after such treatment started, in this particular case, you want hair-loss to decelerate. In order to register a change, you need to first register the previous state of affairs, so you'd have to calculate hair-loss rate both before and after the treatment was ...


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