31

The seasonal coronaviruses attach exclusively to cells with a ciliated epithelium. Coronaviruses invade the respiratory tract via the nose. After an incubation period of about 3 days, they cause the symptoms of a common cold, including nasal obstruction, sneezing, runny nose, and occasionally cough (Figs. 60-1 and 60-2). The disease resolves in a few days, ...


15

What your government is proposing is a lot less than what was actually done in China. There, and perhaps that is still the case, large numbers of asymptomatic infected people were housed together in halls with only social separation between them, and masks to prevent others from infecting others. Your government is proposing to house the asymptomatic ...


14

Disease are officially named by the WHO, while viruses are by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The WHO has stated From a risk communications perspective, using the name SARS can have unintended consequences in terms of creating unnecessary fear for some populations, especially in Asia which was worst affected by the SARS outbreak ...


6

The NEJM editorial that accompanied that issue says: One antiviral-drug candidate is a combination of the HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir. Lopinavir, which acts against the viral 3CL protease, has modest antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. A quick search shows that SARS-CoV 3CL protease was the topic of some more in-depth investigations, ...


4

I should add here that there has been a case of ARDS reported for the alphacoronavirus 229E (i.e. a "common cold" coronavirus) in 2018. But ARDS occurrences are of course, much less common in these "common colds" than in Covid-19 infections. The case report for 229E discusses the few other such occurrences: HCoV-229E has been associated with bronchitis, ...


4

From the very article you've linked: Making a vaccine for a new flu strain is very different from making a vaccine for something completely new like COVID-19, the novel coronavirus that emerged in 2019. Doctors and scientists first developed viable flu vaccines in the 1940s, so they were not starting from scratch when they went to work on the 1957 flu ...


4

It appears to be more nuanced than just high viral load equates to more severe disease. We know that there are case reports of children with high viral loads yet were largely asymptomatic. It may also depend on how the viral load was assessed; whether by nasopharyngeal swabs, or by collecting deep sputum specimens. We know that viral load in the ...


4

This question may a bit too broad (e.g. there are some separate questions about Covid-19 and food) but on the topic of transmission in an office-like setting there have been some studies/reports, some more systematic/formal than others. I know of a study in South Korea in an office building, call center more precisely, (this has received widespread press ...


3

First off no one should be stopping their ARB or ACEI drugs without the direction of their physicians. In particular there is a risk of decompensation of heart failure when these drugs are used in their treatment. We know that the ace2 receptor is encoded on the X chromosome so women have more ace2 receptors than men but men are more susceptible to severe ...


3

The most obvious reason ( apart from the fact that 5M workers who lived in Wuhan were allowed to leave and return to their home cities ) is that Covid-19 is most infectious in the immediate period before symptoms develop, whereas influenza is most infectious after symptoms develop. The symptomatic would know they had the infection and would start to self ...


3

The only data we have suggesting a genetic resistance to Covid-19 so far is that blood group O is protective and so is being female. The latter may relate to the numbers of ACE2 receptors since the virus uses this as one of its 4 attack points, and ACE2 is encoded on the X chromosome giving women more ACE2 receptors. Blood group O may confer resistance too ...


3

Edit: COVID and your laundry In April, a Texas biomedical scientist published an article about COVID and clothing. She suggested that, during the COVID pandemic, it's usually fine to just do laundry in the ordinary way. But, if you're washing the laundry of a likely COVID patient, it's wise to take extra precautions. Please see the CDC's recommendations, ...


3

The question boils down to does increasing the number of ACE2 receptors increase or lower your risk of severe disease with Covid-19. Increasing the number of receptors might increase the number of attack points for the virus, or, increasing the number of receptors might reduce the risk of lung damage as ACE2 acts to protect the lung. We know that the ACE2 ...


3

Here are studies on viability at different temperature for similar viruses https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701(20)30046-3/fulltext


3

When you're doing a nasopharyngeal swab you want primarily cellular material that is infected with virus. You can cut the tip of the swab successfully as in this study for multiple tests Study design We collected a NP swab on children aged 2–12 years with acute sinusitis and processed it for bacterial culture, viruses, cytokine expression, and 16S ...


3

The term "general immunity" is not used all that often nowadays, but it seems to stand in opposition to "local immunity" which are more specialized immune responses in some regions of the body but not others. A 1923 (!) paper on this contrast mentions "Metchnikoff's phagocytic theory of immunity"... and in more recent publications Metchnikoff is called "the ...


3

The principal goal of pooled testing is to rapidly clear many cases in low prevalence (or incidence) situations. Long version: Disclaimer: I'm analytical chemist, i.e. someone who could by profession be involved in developing such tests, but I'm not involved in SARS-CoV2 testing or SARS-CoV2 test development. What I write here is basically my general ...


2

Viruses are below the resolution of light microscopy. Scanning electron microscope image with colours assigned by software https://www.sciencealert.com/this-is-what-the-covid-19-virus-looks-like-under-electron-microscopes


2

An early release paper dated 23 March 2020 is now staying that SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been recovered 17 days after both infected and asymptomatic presumed infected passengers left the cabins of the Diamond Pricess cruise ship. The discovery of virus on surfaces of asymptomatic passengers again demonstrates that viral shedding occurs in this phase in amounts ...


2

Yes, there are several "upsides" as you put it. It's cheaper It's easier to breath in It's sufficient for catching particles smaller than it's actually designed for... Now, that last point is what's important. According to 3M's own documentes on various types of filters and masks, it seem that there's an electrostatic effect between the layers of the ...


2

UPDATE: According to:Lancet April 2 2020 The concentration of SARS-COV-2 decayed thusly: To my non-professional eye it appears that at 72F the concentration of SARS-COV-2 decayed by (approximately) 50% after 72 hours. When the same experiment was carried at at 99F the concentration decayed by 50% in 24 hours. The same experiment when carried out at 133 F,...


2

For the sake of completeness: Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1 (dated March 17 2020) from New England Journal of Medicine Begins: A novel human coronavirus that is now named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (formerly called HCoV-19) emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and is now ...


2

Casanova LM et al. 2010, "Effects of air temperature and relative humidity on coronavirus survival on surfaces." This study on other similar viruses -- transmissible gastroenteritis virus and mouse hepatitis virus -- showed that those viruses persisted for as long as 28 days at 4 degrees C, and stayed activated at low humidity (20% RH). But inactivation ...


2

There has been at least one phylogenetic study of 48 near complete samples of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. and a more up to date link at Genomic epidemiology of novel coronavirus https://arxiv.org/abs/2002.08802


2

The work you’re likely referring to is Neeltje van Doremalen et al. (2020), which evaluates the surface stability of viable SARS-CoV-2 virus. In this experiment viable virus was found to survive for three days on plastic and stainless steel surfaces. This result has been widely reported in news media. You can read the methods appendix to understand exactly ...


2

Insofar public health officials seem to have ruled out food as a route of transmission, e.g. EFSA’s chief scientist, Marta Hugas, said: “Experiences from previous outbreaks of related coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), show that transmission through ...


2

Like everything else, we're instructed by past experiences. Although there weren't a lot of data on neurologic aspects of MERS and SARS, there were some papers describing neurologic complications in those patients. In rare cases, complications including ADEM (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis)-like demyelination, encephalitis, and brainstem encephalitis ...


2

You may find this article to be helpful in some way. Dr. Siddhartha Mukharjee The New Yorker April 6 2020 issue. “How does the Coronavirus Behave Inside a Patient” The title I think is a bit misleading. The article does not cover the whole course of the illness! I think. It is interesting https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2020/04/06/how-does-the-...


2

Doing such an experiment on humans would obviously be unethical in the present circumstances. There has been a report that monkeys who recovered and were later re-infected with mega-doses of the Covid-19 virus didn't get sick again. This is not terribly conclusive, because monkeys don't get severe symptoms from SARS like we do, for example. (SARS is the ...


2

There is no known way to infect yourself with a "safe" dose of SARS-CoV-2. The eyes are listed as a portal of infection which is why health workers wear eye protection (goggles, face shields ). Once the virus infects human cells it starts to replicate creating more virus. At some stage the immune system will ramp up and detect the virus but this takes ...


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