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The Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) is a measure of severity in obstructive sleep apnea. It is calculated as the number of times per hour that the airway partially or completely collapses, associated with a drop in oxygen levels. Partial collapse is labeled a hypopnea, whereas complete collapse is labeled an apnea. CPAP treatment uses air pressure delivered ...


8

The basic idea is that people with pulmonary diseases that involve chronic hypoventilation rely on mild hypoxia to stimulate respiration. To understand this, consider a basic homeostatic feedback loop that controls respiratory drive. During a breath hold, carbon dioxide levels rise and oxygen levels fall. Carbon dioxide diffuses across the blood-brain ...


7

Passive (or secondhand) smoking can increase your risk of cancer and other health problems. Inhaled smoke is a mixture of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette or cigar and the smoke exhaled from the lungs of smokers. It is harmful and may cause a wide range of adverse health effects, particularly harmful for children. Studies show that non-smokers ...


6

"Clinically" in this context means "by doctors in the clinic" in their normal practice. It excludes research contexts, and implies "real-world" circumstances. There is no implication here of the "clinical diagnosis" definition added to the question. Lab results/imaging would still be clinical assuming they were ordered ...


5

According to The Better Health Channel (independant of any business, funded by the State Government of Victoria, Australia), passive smokers are exposed to many health risks that include long-term effects. To make it short: Second-hand smoke is a danger to everyone, but children, pregnant women and the partners of people who smoke are most vulnerable. ...


5

Does carbon monoxide poisoning make you tired before it kills you? The symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning can vary per person it affects, and it can also depend on the the levels of exposure to each person. The short answer would be yes, general fatigue and tiredness can be a symptom of carbon monoxide poisoning. I believe this is accurate for one ...


4

The approach you describe most likely will not work, and could be detrimental to your training. The main benefit of training at altitude is that the body will adapt to the lower concentration of oxygen by stimulating the production of erythropoietin which in turn causes the body to produce more red blood cells. What you are describing is a very limited ...


2

As a patient, Mayo Clinic physicians have indicated to me, as a patient, that weight loss can improve your position (reduce / eliminate apnea+hypoxia events) and reduce the need and possibly eliminate the need for CPAP therapy.


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The resistance is defined as pressure difference per flow (basically just an application of Ohm's law). With Hagen-Poiseulle: So if the alveoli diameter is reduced to half (resulting in a halved radius), as the resistance changes by the fourth, it is increased by factor 16 (24). Note: As the bronchioles terminales are connected parallel, they actually do ...


1

There is no specific mechanism to carry nitrogen in blood, it is carried in a dissolved form unlike oxygen which uses the protein haemoglobin which is contained in red cells. Animals can not utilize atmospheric nitrogen so there is very little exchange between inhaled nitrogen and dissolved nitrogen. Any nitrogen inhaled is exhaled again as it can not be ...


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Since there is a good answer already I'll just add my two cents from my understanding of physiology: Hypoventilation has two effects during exercise: Less available oxygen in your lungs and a somewhat less amount of oxygen in the blood that comes out of your lungs, which is not as big a difference as you might expect because hemoglobin is incredibly ...


1

Predicted Normal Values Many studies have published lung function reference values for a variety of race/ ethnic groups, countries, and age ranges. Populations of interest are sampled and spriometric studies were done and statistical analyis was used to determine "normal" results for each parameter of interest. It was found that general equations ...


1

One of the largest differences between an exerciser and a nonexerciser concerns the heart's ability to pump blood and consequently deliver oxygen to working muscles. Cardiac output is a major limiting factor for prolonged exercise. In addition, an exerciser typically has a larger blood volume, is better able to extract oxygen from the air in the lungs and is ...


1

Reduced oxygen saturation in blood is called hypoxia (though strictly that means reduced oxygen in the tissues). If there is marked reduction in oxygen saturation of blood, it may lead to bluish discoloration of skin and tongue, called cyanosis. Mildly reduced arterial oxygen saturation may be due to mild respiratory or cardiac diseases. A common lung ...


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