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When thinking about the nervous system, most people think about the brain and spinal cord: the CNS. However, the enteric nervous system controlling gut function has another ~500 million neurons. Among other things, these neurons coordinate the peristaltic contractions of the gut which act to move food through the digestive system. Peristalsis is under the ...


6

Studies have linked oversleeping with Cognitive impairment Depression Increased inflammation Increased pain Impaired fertility Higher risk of obesity Higher risk of diabetes Higher risk of heart disease Higher risk of stroke Higher all-cause mortality You can find the detailed article here: http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/physical-side-effects-...


5

First, I’ll cover some anatomy and physiology of the heart. Cardiac anatomy The heart is divided into two sides. The right side (on the left of the image) receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs. The left side (on the right of the image) receives blood back from the lungs and pumps it to the body. Cardiac physiology Blood entering the ...


5

Examples of books from four basic "pre-clinical" subjects: Anatomy: Sobotta Atlas of Human Anatomy (entire book, page by page) Biology: Goodman: Medical Cell Biology (Google preview) Biochemistry: Lehninger: Principles of Biochemistry (book overview with a sample chapter about proteins) Physiology: Berne & Levy Physiology (Google preview) These books ...


4

I believe the procedure described is called either muscle energy technique (MET) or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNT). More details are on Advantageceus.com (p. 229). Skin stimuli, like scratching or flicking, may be part of the mentioned techniques. This article on International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine says that "MET application may ...


4

You can use the formula for blood vessel flowrate by accounting heart rate and radius using flow rate formula: Q=ΔP/R Wherein; flow rate (volume/time); ΔP = pressure difference (mm Hg); and R = resistance to flow (mm Hg x time/volume). "This equation may be applied not only to a single vessel, but can also be used to describe flow through a network of ...


4

From my current personal experience at medical school, I would like to add following precisions to Carey Gregory's answer: Before going into clinical practice and rotating in the different subspecialties listed by Carey Gregory in his answer, in general, medical students learn the “fundamentals” of medicine during the first years of medical school. This ...


4

Mechanically, if you have good enough foot control to be able to meet compressions guidelines, then a compression is a compression. But there are a few things to consider. Most importantly, what a good compression is and how to achieve it, and whether you can achieve it with your foot. To begin, CPR guidelines are updated regularly based upon research into ...


3

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27271361 This study expands on the possibility of certain metabolites found in dietary milk may contribute highly to Single Nucleotide Polymorphism SNP formations. Dietary milk are given primarily to developing organisms, and for that concentrations of growth hormones as well as precursors that transform into growth hormone ...


3

The CDC recommends: Vaccination to prevent influenza is particularly important for persons who are at increased risk for severe complications from influenza, or at higher risk for influenza-related outpatient, ED, or hospital visits. When vaccine supply is limited, vaccination efforts should focus on delivering vaccination to the following persons who do ...


3

Persons who do regular physical exercise have a lower heart rate while they are resting (or not exercising): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22081187 Hence, their hearts will be beating same number of beats over a longer period of time. In addition, a number of trials have shown that regular physical exercise is associated with significant health ...


3

Medicine is challenging for many reasons. One major reason is that it takes multiple tiers of knowledge as a foundation prior to being able to even start studying the fundamentals. This is how it works in the USA for most schools: FIRST: College or University (after high school, before medical school) Undergraduate level (usually 4 years): Math: through ...


3

During shivering, the heat production in your body can be up to 3 times as high as in rest. For comparison, during maximal exercise, the heat production can be up to 15-20 times as high as in rest. So, practically speaking, shivering alone can prevent you from hypothermia only in relatively mild cold; to produce more heat you would need to do some ...


2

The mechanism is depicted in the diagram you posted, most obvious in "A": ECG (and any voltage measurement) is based on a potential difference You don't measure the voltage at one spot, you measure the difference between two spots. Those spots are depicted in the diagram with a (-) and (+) symbol, although the (-) is left out of BCD. In A and D, the ...


2

That is a bit speculatice and complicated as well. "Polydactyly" is a nice catch-all for "hands not normal" with regard to number of digits. But the actual manifestation of this overall rare condition can be of quite the variation in both forms and causes. Whether it's a genetic/epigenetic component a teratogenic influence on pregnancy or a comorbidity in a ...


2

What happens during inversion? increase in blood pressure Oxygen uptake increase Heart rate decreased significantly The double product, the frequency of breaths, and tidal volume were not significantly changed What happens post exercise ? nonsignificant changes in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and double product from the pre-...


2

The symptoms you are describing sound like the symptoms of GERD or similar illnesses. Since these can be exacerbated by stress(anger), that may be your answer. Symptoms of GERD: Sore throat Dry cough Bad breath Hoarseness But it doesn't have to be this, it could be related to what you are doing while angry: Shouting, talking or excessive mouth ...


2

The list of sub-categories in medicine is pretty much the same as the list of specialists in medicine. This list is fairly complete, although there are one or two specialties that aren't listed such as sports medicine, and some fields such as radiology have more than one type of specialist. But for your purposes, this should be accurate enough. http://www....


2

Basically, the signal transduction pathway of PGI2 involves a Gs protein. This Gs protein involves the increase in cAMP (through adenylate cyclase; I am assuming you know the signal transduction pathways). Thus, when you administer Dipyridamole, phosphodiesterase is inhibited (which would've degraded your cAMP), thus there is an augmented effect of the PGI2. ...


2

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3502130/ Conclusion The findings from this study support the view that the mechanism for the JM is a reduction in presynaptic inhibition of alpha motoneurons as it is influenced by physical and not mental activity.


1

High-pressure baroreceptors are in the part of the circulatory system with blood pressures higher than 60 mm Hg - in the aortic arc and in the carotid sinus at the bifurcation of the carotid artery. Their activation by high blood pressure results in a decreased heart rate and vasodilation and hence in a drop of blood pressure. Low-pressure baroreceptors are ...


1

The left atrial pressure tracing here is not the best part of this figure. It might have some pedagogical value if it were discussed in the text, but it's not. Measuring left atrial pressure directly requires a puncture or a pathological condition (e.g., a septal defect). This is why you'll typically see pulmonary capillary wedge pressure instead of ...


1

Migraine auras are in a way similar to epileptic seizures; the most-accepted theory is they're caused by a depression of cortical neurons that spreads throughout the cortex during the attack. Cortical Spreading Depression Migraine Aura Pathophysology


1

The fingerprint of a person doesn't change when they're asleep, but their heart rate and breathing slows. It is also possible to determine whether they are asleep or not by monitoring activity in their brain and muscles or watching their eyes. If they are in a REM (rapid eye movement) phase their eyes will move.


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