20

To turn this question on its head, I'd like to propose a different question that the AIDS deniers haven't answered. If HIV were not the cause of AIDS, why would anti-retroviral therapy be so successful in preventing the disease? Each of the meds in the cocktails that stave off AIDS limit the ability of the virus - the HIV virus - to reproduce. It can be ...


19

With respect to your peer-reviewed journal article, Frontiers isn't a particularly well-regarded journal series. AIDS denialism is alive and well, but there's a massive body of evidence pointing to HIV infection as the cause of AIDS. Just as a starting point, consider this 2010 report from the NIH. One should also consider what would be required for this ...


6

To get an understanding of the difference, look at a disease that has been in the news recently, Legionnaire's Disease. Legionella pneumophilia is a bacteria that is responsible for most cases. It lives in stagnant water under certain conditions, and is inhaled when aerosalized. This is the etiology of the disease, which is basically how it infects the host,...


6

Short answer The consensus is that sub-optimal lighting does not permanently damage the eye. Background Sub-optimal lighting can create a sensation of having difficulty in focusing. It also decreases the rate of blinking and leads to discomfort from drying. These complaints do not persist. The majority consensus in ophthalmology is that reading in dim ...


5

Since the OP is asking for definitions, maybe it is OK to be nitpicky. Pathogenesis is the process by which harm has occurred. Pathology is the study of harm, including the study of pathogenesis. Etiology is the investigation of causes. Doctors are most interested in the causes of harm, not in the causes of neutral or good outcomes, so most medical ...


4

First, what are metastases? The exact definition of metastases is more and more debated in the last decades (for an excellent review see the review by Welch, 2006), mainly because the advances in cancer research have permitted to unveil new characteristics (genetical, biochemical, surface membrane expression,...) of metastasic cells. According to Welch, ...


3

I don´t see any issues with JohnP´s answer. I just would approach with different example. Lets take coronary artery disease and cholesterol as an example. Coronary arteries are probably the most important blood veins in the body since they transport arterial blood from aorta to the heart muscle itself. Coronary artery disease means that heart muscle ...


2

I really liked the pathology textbook Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. I own the massive book, and it's pretty well written and not difficult to read, given that you have the science background to understand it. Not that I could sit down and read it, I used it more as a topic reference, but I did have classmates who read the thing, kudos ...


2

I'm not aware that capillary blood glucose levels have been systematically examined but interstitial fluid glucose levels in one study using a Freestyle Libre Pro appeared to show higher levels in the dominant arm whereas one might expect the increased muscle bulk on the dominant arm to extract more glucose. Another possibility is that if there is increased ...


1

The skin of a caucasian-skinned person with cyanosis is described as bluish, but it is still more reddish than blue. The bluish jumps out at us in comparison with healthy well-oxygenated blood. The colors we see are the product of the incoming light, and the proportion of the wavelengths that are absorbed, scattered, or reflected. Because skin and arteries/...


1

The answer is hypertrophy, but if the injury is disabling, then it will lead to muscle atrophy due to disuse. Note that body builders lift weight until causing minor injury. https://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/musclesgrowLK.html


1

Short answer: When treating cardiac insufficiency the key focus is increasing stroke volume. To do this we don't just decrease afterload but we also lower preload and sometimes increase contractility. Long answer So cardiac insufficiency is all about cardiac output (CO) and CO = stroke volume(SV)* heart rate (HR). The key problem in cardiac insufficiency ...


1

Yes. The definition of syncope is exactly that, hypo-perfusion in the brain. This is usually caused by a sudden drop in blood pressure such as in a vaso-vagal syncope where a strong vagal response triggers sudden dilation of arteries (vasodilation) and decreases the heart rate. The same goes for heart conditions called arrhythmias cause an abnormal ...


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