20 votes

Is HIV the cause of AIDS?

To turn this question on its head, I'd like to propose a different question that the AIDS deniers haven't answered. If HIV were not the cause of AIDS, why would anti-retroviral therapy be so ...
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19 votes

Is HIV the cause of AIDS?

With respect to your peer-reviewed journal article, Frontiers isn't a particularly well-regarded journal series. AIDS denialism is alive and well, but there's a massive body of evidence pointing to ...
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  • 2,423
7 votes
Accepted

What's the difference between etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, pathophysiology and epidemiology?

To get an understanding of the difference, look at a disease that has been in the news recently, Legionnaire's Disease. Legionella pneumophilia is a bacteria that is responsible for most cases. It ...
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  • 6,524
6 votes
Accepted

Will reading in dim light damage my eyes?

Short answer The consensus is that sub-optimal lighting does not permanently damage the eye. Background Sub-optimal lighting can create a sensation of having difficulty in focusing. It also ...
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  • 373
6 votes

What's the difference between etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, pathophysiology and epidemiology?

Since the OP is asking for definitions, maybe it is OK to be nitpicky. Pathogenesis is the process by which harm has occurred. Pathology is the study of harm, including the study of pathogenesis. ...
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4 votes

What's the difference between etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, pathophysiology and epidemiology?

I don´t see any issues with JohnP´s answer. I just would approach with different example. Lets take coronary artery disease and cholesterol as an example. Coronary arteries are probably the most ...
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  • 2,322
4 votes
Accepted

Advanced lung cancer spreading areas

First, what are metastases? The exact definition of metastases is more and more debated in the last decades (for an excellent review see the review by Welch, 2006), mainly because the advances in ...
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3 votes

Best books for understanding pathophysiology

I really liked the pathology textbook Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. I own the massive book, and it's pretty well written and not difficult to read, given that you have the science ...
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  • 5,693
3 votes

Why do herpes virus infections (apart from chicken pox) resolve without dermatological sequelae?

I apologize in advance, a lot of the papers referenced may be paywalled. There's a lot of literature on the various Herpesviridae and it is a large pleotropic family, producing such viruses as ...
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  • 1,758
3 votes

Pathophysiology of bronchiolitis vs. bronchitis

The reason the distinction if confusing, is because while both terms appear to be referring to inflammation of a particular anatomical / histologic structure, in reality, most clinicians use "...
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  • 2,059
2 votes
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Reason for different blood glucose values in left and right hand

I'm not aware that capillary blood glucose levels have been systematically examined but interstitial fluid glucose levels in one study using a Freestyle Libre Pro appeared to show higher levels in the ...
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  • 13.2k
2 votes

Why nephrotic syndrome does not present with haematuria?

If you remember the structure of the glomerulus there are three barriers that regulate the filtration process: the first barrier is endothelial cells which has spaces between them that allow the ...
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  • 156
1 vote
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Are there diseases which are contagious but can also arise simultaneously in an individual?

Yes, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease is an example. In Creutzfeldt–Jakob, a spontaneous misfolding of a protein in the brain gives rise to a prion. A prion is a misfolded protein that is able to 'transmit' ...
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  • 238
1 vote

What is the difference between lipohyalinosis and microatheroma?

As the name suggests, a microatheroma is a small atheroma. An artheroma is what's commonly known as a plaque. It's a mass on the interior wall of arteries: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary....
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  • 9,324
1 vote

What's the resson the skin looks bluish when having cyanosis?

The skin of a caucasian-skinned person with cyanosis is described as bluish, but it is still more reddish than blue. The bluish jumps out at us in comparison with healthy well-oxygenated blood. The ...
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1 vote

Does skeletal muscle injury cause hypertrophy or atrophy?

The answer is hypertrophy, but if the injury is disabling, then it will lead to muscle atrophy due to disuse. Note that body builders lift weight until causing minor injury. https://www.unm.edu/~...
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  • 196
1 vote
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Afterload during Cardiac failure?

Short answer: When treating cardiac insufficiency the key focus is increasing stroke volume. To do this we don't just decrease afterload but we also lower preload and sometimes increase contractility. ...
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1 vote

Is it right to say that any syncope is a result of low perfusion to brain?

Yes. The definition of syncope is exactly that, hypo-perfusion in the brain. This is usually caused by a sudden drop in blood pressure such as in a vaso-vagal syncope where a strong vagal response ...
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