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Dysmenorrhea (pain with menstruation) can be primary or secondary. The first thing a woman should do is see a physician to determine which kind of dysmenorrhea she has. Primary dysmenorrhea is painful menstruation with a normal pelvic examination (no causes can be determined). It is is by far the most common gynecologic problem in menstruating women, can ...


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Let's look up Ibuprofen up in a reliable source. We can read there that: Cardiovascular Risk Increased risk of serious (sometimes fatal) cardiovascular thrombotic events (e.g., MI, stroke). Risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use. (See Cardiovascular Thrombotic Effects under Cautions.) Contraindicated in the setting ...


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It somewhat depends on the type of injury, but in general a person would use cold application initially to help stop bleeding, minimize inflammation and reduce swelling. Heat would be more beneficial during the healing stage to encourage blood flow to the area. ... Plus it just feels good. Sometimes an alternating system of cold for a period of time, then ...


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One of the reasons is stability. According to this paper from 1979, the half-life of β-endorphin in 3 patients was measured at 37 minutes. This is in contrast to morphine, which has an elimination half-life of 3-4 hours (source). This means that while β-endorphin may have some use in short-term situations like surgical recovery rooms, it wouldn't really be ...


1

The only one of those categories that should get the "general" modifier is anesthetic - this is to contrast them with local anesthetics, which are the "numbing agents" you describe. General anesthetics General anesthesics are agents that cause loss of consciousness. They prevent conscious perception of pain by causing loss of consciousness, rather than ...


1

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 2017: The GRASE dose for caffeine is established in the Stimulant Final Monograph as 100-200 mg not more often than every 3-4 hours. GRASE (generally recognized as safe and effective) is a safety designation the FDA uses for over-the-counter drugs (FDA.gov, Wikipedia). According to a systematic ...


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Lidocaine1 is not categorized as a painkiller but as a (local) anesthetic; it can be used during minor procedures where the patient has full awareness by injecting it to the preferred site of action. It inhibits the sodium channels on the nerve endings in the skin. Therefore it provides insensibility of ALL nerve fibers, both causing numbness in the skin ...


1

The differential diagnosis of pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen or groin is quite extensive, which is why questions on history-taking and a clinical examination are so important. I see some investigations (MRI) have been completed, which should narrow it down a bit. Anatomy This diagram shows the position in question: the left lower quadrant (...


1

Ibuprofen is a very-standard NSAID, and generally speaking it is a pretty safe drug when taken in an appropriate dose. All medications have side-effects, Ibuprofen is not the exception. Now, usually these things are not an issue for healthy individuals. Mostly they can be a problem for people with pre-existing conditions. Ibuprofen is not recommended for ...


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