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14

There are three main types of stretching that the general layman will be familiar with. There are a couple of others, but they are extreme techniques, and generally not used by the everyday athlete. Ballistic - The "lean and bounce" method, where you repeatedly bob back and forth in the stretch Dynamic - Mimics the motion of the activity in increasing ...


10

There is evidence of analgesic effects of menthol in scientific literature. It has been studied in humans and has shown to be superior to ice in delayed onset muscle soreness; in a placebo-controlled, triple-blind, cross-over clinical study menthol-based gel acutely reduced pain in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms. In mice blockage of voltage ...


7

The general consensus on the internet and among various physical trainers is that static stretching in 20-30 second segments is sufficient to increase range of motion (ROM) in a muscle. This is corroborated by two studies (Very similar in nature, conducted by the same people), where one study showed that there was no difference when time was increased from ...


6

If the runner can't drink then dehydration will be the first thing that takes him out. Water is the one essential thing he's going to lose rapidly through sweat, urine and respiration, and as he loses it he's going to lose electrolytes along with it. The end result will be disabling muscle cramps, weakness, and exhaustion. If he somehow continues on ...


5

Although stretching is not the only answer, you should certainly do some pre-exercising. In a state of inaction, your muscles contract and tighten, and also lose heat. This makes them brittle and inert. Going straight into heavy exercise can cause significant damage, and so in going from inactive to fully active, you should ideally 'warm-up' with a more ...


5

Having done more searching over the last month, I thought it might be helpful to others if I answered my own question. I came to three realizations: First, this is like asking, "Dear Google, when am I going to die?" It's impossible to know for sure and it's unnerving to even ask. Second, searching for "older people with cerebral palsy" on the internet is a ...


5

I only partly agree with previous answer and would like to contrast some of the points suggesting that "muskuloskeletal disorders is a term used in occupational medicine". According to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) of the WHO (which is used by hospitals, health prof. and ...


4

Yes, a tension-type headache is more of a pressing, tightening quality, and mild to moderate intensity. There is no throbbing. There is also no nausea. It is usually bilateral, so usually it is on both sides of the head. The forehead is possible...but not the only option. In contrast, a migraine is more of a throbbing kind of headache, and begins or stays ...


4

I believe the procedure described is called either muscle energy technique (MET) or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNT). More details are on Advantageceus.com (p. 229). Skin stimuli, like scratching or flicking, may be part of the mentioned techniques. This article on International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine says that "MET application may ...


3

Point of attachment and direction of force development. This is like trying to move a door near the handle or at the hinges. Lever forces are weak in one case and almost absent in the other case. It is a difference between small and negligible. The M pronator teres is already very weak for flexing the elbow, as it is attached at a quite suboptimal ...


3

It's been my understanding that a buildup of lactic acid (aka lactate) eventually causes the muscles to stop being able to process glucose. This article from Scientific American describes the processes the muscles use to convert to an anaerobic process as muscle performance outpaces oxygen supplies. The pertinent passage:A side effect of high lactate levels ...


3

If you build this up gradually, then you're more likely to succeed, although it may still be above the limit that your body can tolerate in the long term. In general, exercise stresses the body, but the body then responds to that by making itself stronger not just to meet the extra demand but to actually exceed this (provided the exercise routine isn't too ...


3

Thanks to Vance-L-Albaugh for clarifications. For deep cuts, sutures bind the subcutaneous tissue to allow it to heal properly. Since muscle lies beneath the subcutaneous tissue, it seems that sutures do NOT include muscle for lacerations. However, if you want to generalize to any suture, then the first two articles below demonstrate instances where muscle ...


3

Persons who do regular physical exercise have a lower heart rate while they are resting (or not exercising): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22081187 Hence, their hearts will be beating same number of beats over a longer period of time. In addition, a number of trials have shown that regular physical exercise is associated with significant health ...


3

Muscle atrophy doesn't have to be bad. Your body tries to fit the situation by decreasing your muscle mass and thus to decrease the needed energy to maintain your body. However, in order to prevent possible muscle atrophy, there have been several methods. Exercise has been shown to be effective in preventing glucocorticoid-induced atrophy in muscles ...


3

If the purpose is to prevent tendon injuries, then stretching is not really an effective solution. This article took a look at nearly 2000 articles in Embase and PubMed, and distilled down to 10 representative studies, none of which found that stretching was an effective method for preventing injuries. (On a side note, I have done previous searches on ...


3

I am an anesthetic nurse and have been present at different neurosurgical operations while patients were awake. Mainly brain tumors, but also some stimulation electrodes to fight tremor in Parkinson disease. There are different techniques used to make sure the patient is well prepared and can deal with the situation - which is in my opinion already the most ...


3

The Powerbreathe is an inspiratory muscle trainer promoted as improving inspiratory muscle strength (and consequently exercise performance) in athletes and patients with respiratory disease. No published evidence supports its efficacy.2 An advantage to training was observed when outcome was assessed by maximal static inspiratory mouth pressure (mean ...


3

Your understanding about the mechanism by which the K+ ions leak out of the cardiac cell during ischaemia is correct. But, regarding the latter part, lets discuss what is the situation of K+ ions in a normal cardiac cell. In a normal cardiac cell, the concentration of K+ ions is more inside compared to the outside of the cell (150mM inside as compared to 4mM ...


2

Inflammatory chemicals released into an inflamed joint stimulate pain receptors even at rest: Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 and interleukin-17 are also mediators of pain by directly acting on the nociceptive system. Proportions of nociceptive sensory neurons express receptors for these ...


2

This is more the matter of the usage of the terms rather than an actual categorization. "Musculoskeletal disorders" is a term used in occupational medicine that refers to "minor" and mainly chronic disorders (mainly overuse injuries) that affect motion and include disorders of the muscles (chronic strain, myofascial pain), tendons (...


2

Your understanding of the effect of BCAA's on serotonin is not 100% correct. Let me preface this with "I am not a biochemist", I'm learning like everyone and if anyone who has a degree could improve my answer, please do! Lets get some science up in here. Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) refers to three amino acids: Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine. ...


2

Cold water definitely doesn't cause arthritis but it certainly helps to release muscle stress. Infact hot and cold therapy is suggested to patients with arthritis. When you run you cause wear and tear in your muscles and also sweat causing your body temperature to rise. Cold water brings your heated muscles back to homeostasis faster than your body will. ...


2

Background: Basal Metabolic Rate is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. Several BMR equations exist but the most notable one was the Harris-Benedict equation (revised 1984), which was created in 1919 and was the 'best' until 1990 until The Mifflin St Jeor Equation. These equations use the same factors: P ...


2

It depends on whether the hammer toes are due to functional problems or are fixed. If the proximal interphalangeal joint can be passively extended, then an orthotic can help. If the passive issue is neurological then exercises won't help as they won't be able to maintain the joint in the correct position when you're not doing the exercise, and you're not ...


2

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Differential diagnosis in an adult man with a unilateral pain in the gluteal area lasting for over a year and not worsening, without a history of trauma, infection or inflammatory arthritis or other conditions (an incomplete list): Degenerative disc disease (DDD) with bulging or herniating disc(s) pressing upon the spinal nerve root(s)...


1

Your question focuses on the location of the receptors (the part of the nociceptors that is reacting to mechanical, thermal, or chemical stimuli). An equally important part of a nociceptor is the axon, or nerve fibre, that conducts the action potential from the muscle or tendon (to go with your example) all the way to the spinal cord from where it makes ...


1

If you have more muscles, you will have more place to store glucose in them (in the form of glycogen), but what seems to be more important is the rate of glucose uptake by muscles, which increases with endurance training (running, swimming...) rather than with resistance training (body building). The Role of Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Breakdown for Regulation ...


1

As a continence and pelvic pain physiotherapist pelvic floor muscle tightness is actually an assessment of increased tone or muscle overactivity. Palpation is digital and sides are compared as are each individual muscle within the pelvic floor. Tightness/increased tone/overactivity will often manifest as trigger points or areas of pain or discomfort. Another ...


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