4

According to USDA Food Composition Database, 1 gram (or even 100 grams) of fish oil from sardines, herring, salmon and menhaden contains 0 (zero) μg vitamin A. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamin A (The National Academic Press, 2001) Acute toxicity is characterized by nausea, vomiting, headache, increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure, vertigo, ...


3

Vitamin A is an important Vitamin in my opinion. See, importance for Children 6-59 months https://www.who.int/elena/titles/vitamina_children/en/ So age is a consideration. Here is the Pauling Institute article on Vitamin A, Oregon State Univ. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-A This article also discusses the osteoporosis risk. How well ...


2

I haven't found any source that would claim that a normal level of haptocorrin in saliva is a limiting factor for the absorption of vitamin B12 from supplements. On the other hand, haptocorrin deficiency can limit the absorption of vitamin B12 even from food thus leading to vitamin B12 deficiency (Clinical Chemistry, 2003). It is the intrinsic factor that ...


2

You do not need to get 100% of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of every water-soluble vitamin every single day. It depends on the vitamin, but you can safely assume it is enough you get about 7 RDAs of each in a week. It is often said that water-soluble vitamins (B complex and C) are not stored in the body, but this is not exactly true. There is always ...


1

Easy answer is simply "we don't know". The burden of proof is on the manufacturer, who probably will never spend the millions to know. But since it is a nutritional agent, one does not have to substantiate claims, just print it up and sell em. But if you think eating collagen will help joints and tendons, you must also believe that eating teeth will help ...


1

So, the question is if the knowledge about fat viscosity could help design diets to prevent or treat diseases and why is not more research about this. There is an ongoing research; I don't know how much USDA is involved, though. There is some evidence that the fatty acids with 4 or more unsaturated bonds (arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA) improve fluidity of ...


1

Minerals are not destroyed by cooking, but a large amount of some minerals, especially potassium, can leak into the boiling water. This can be prevented by steaming - cooking above instead in the boiling water. More than 50% of some vitamins can be destroyed by cooking; the percent increases with cooking time. Source: Nutritional Effects of Food Processing ...


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