Acidic environment in the stomach (ph ~2) is necessary for the activity of the enzyme pepsin, which partly digests proteins to peptides (NCBI).
"Alkaline environment," which is not really alkaline but rather less acidic or nearly neutral with pH 6-7.4, (PubMed) is in the small intestine, where carbohydrates, fats and peptides are digested.
It depends on the diet and the person. However, protein myths abound because people look at extreme ends of the scale, and assume that outlier needs are suitable for the masses.
If you are looking for homeostasis and general maintenance, then the upper limit that has been shown in studies to be beneficial is 1.6g/kg/d, or about .73g/lb/day. 1g/lb/day is a ...
The chart says that 100 grams of chickpeas have 364 calories, and 6 grams of total fat. It also tells you that the 6 grams of total fat is 9% of the "daily recommended value" for fat: this is because the total daily recommended value is 65 grams of fat, so 6/65 grams is about 9%.
These are fairly rough guidelines and there is no way for a universal ...
Per 100 gram:
Sugars = 20 g x 4 kcal = 80 kcal
Fiber = 2 g x 2 kcal = 4 kcal
Protein = 1 g x 4 kcal = 4 kcal
In total: 88 Kcal (368 kJ) and not 10kJ as stated.
Carbohydrate total is also wrong. It should be 22 g (not 20 g): 20 g of sugar and 2 g of fiber.
In short: Cooking milk has probably only a minor effect on its nutritional value.
According to USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors (p. 5), in milk heated for 10 minutes, the vitamin loses are: vitamin B1, B6 and choline: 10% ; vitamin C and folate: 15% ; vitamin B12: 20%. Other vitamins and minerals are not affected.
From the ...
Muscle twitches (fasciculations) caused by malnutrition are usually (not always) associated with muscle cramps.
Malnutrition-related causes of twitches include severely insufficient nutrient intake (fasting, anorexia nervosa...) or malabsorption (Crohn or celiac disease...):
dehydration, especially if associated with exercise (Managing the Side Effects of ...
In short, 1,000 excessive calories from food does not translate into 1,000 calories of body fat. The conversion rate is highest for fats and lowest for proteins and may greatly depend on genetics.
1) What is the conversion rate for energy in macronutrients consumed to energy in fat stored?
It depends greatly on a person and foods eaten, because some energy ...
Simplified from CALCULATION OF THE ENERGY CONTENT OF FOODS - ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS (FAO.org)
Food energy can be:
Combustible or ingested energy = theoretical maximum energy content of a food measured using bomb calorimetry (the energy you ingest)
Metabolizable energy (ME) = ingested energy minus energy lost in feces by indigestible nutrients (the ...
The question is a quite broad since you don't state whether you mean a ketogenic diet, levels of protein and fats, or what you mean by "athletic and mental performance" so I will answer quite generally.
There is some anecdotal limited evidence that shows unhindered athletic performance on a Low Carb diet, such as observations made on Innuit people prior to ...
Apparently twitching can indeed be caused by low sugar (hypoglycemia), but this is more in line with having diabetes than being malnourished.
See "Symptoms of moderate low blood sugar" in https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/health-topics/aa20831
The definition of a Calorie (Note the big C, a food calorie is actually a kilocalorie, or 1000 small calories) is simply the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius.
To get this, originally foods were burned in a bomb calorimeter, and the calories determined by the rise in heat of the water. Now (At least in ...
Short answer yes, unless you have got any condition stopping you from doing so.
Now the long answer:
Protein is the building block of the body. If we consider the human body as a huge network of interconnected chemical reactions, we can appreciate it a little better. Mostof chemical reactions in the body use enzymes as catalyst and most enzymes are proteins. ...