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The range of symptoms for people infected with SARS-CoV-2 are extreme. There are reports of asymptomatic children with CT scans showing viral pneumonia. Among the paediatric patients in our study, just under a third were asymptomatic. Moreover, a fifth had pneumonia only and needed radiographic examination to be identified. With respect to the question ...


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There is no specific mechanism to carry nitrogen in blood, it is carried in a dissolved form unlike oxygen which uses the protein haemoglobin which is contained in red cells. Animals can not utilize atmospheric nitrogen so there is very little exchange between inhaled nitrogen and dissolved nitrogen. Any nitrogen inhaled is exhaled again as it can not be ...


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The risk of infection is from inhalation of viral particles, or, from those particles landing on mucosal surfaces including the eyes, or being transferred there by ones hands. I am not aware of any data that shows people with respiratory disease are more or less likely to develop covid-19. But if you have a co-morbid illness, then you're less likely to ...


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Even a cursory reading of the spec indicates that this will not work. Specification Must: Defines the minimum viable product clinically acceptable by clinicians [...] RMCPAP must deliver inspired oxygen concentration in the range 35 – 80% to the patient, selectable by the user. [...] All gas connectors and hoses must comply with BS EN ISO ...


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Airway pressure is a lot less than what a bike pump produces during a single pump action (in the usual setting of how its used). Even though ventilators work in a similar way (cf. https://i.stack.imgur.com/PgmEZ.png), CPAP by definition needs to maintain a continuous airway pressure (CPAP = continuous positive airway pressure). The pressure to be held should ...


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The current guidelines for treatment of Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome do not recommend such treatment. In SARDS associated with covid-19 disease there is alveolar collapse due to infection and death of the surfactant making pneumocytes lining the alveoli. the recommendation is to generally run these patients on the dry side while being ventilated as ...


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This video by Kurzgesagt gives a good overview of how the COVID-19 infection process works. The damage it causes to the lungs seems to the result of it damaging the cells that create a protective lining of your lungs; this happens both directly as a result of their infections of these cells, as well as by causing the immune system to attack healthy cells. By ...


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From your own data 19% of patients need hospital care. Hospital care is usually required when the patient develops significant shortness of breath. Shortness of breath implies hypoxemia. Hypoxaemia is caused by a disturbance of gas exchange in the lungs. All of these patients have pneumonia with the early CT changes of upper peripheral parts of the lungs ...


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The best theoretical model we have is that the SARS and SARS-CoV-2 viruses knock out the ACE2 receptor found on numerous tissues including alveolar cells, and myocytes, and intestinal luminal cells. If those cells have died then they need to be replaced, and if and until when that happens there will be reduced organ function. CT scans of recovered patients ...


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Hyperoxygenation causes vasoconstriction and increased systemic vascular resistance. This can be good in some circumstances and bad in others. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3672526/ Overall there is poor evidence for supplimental oxygen in patients with pneumonia. Cochrane found that: "Non-invasive ventilation can reduce the risk of death in ...


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China has sent 67 ECMO machines to Hubei, said Luo Junjie, an official from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, adding that the ministry will import more ECMO machines for Hubei and Wuhan, the capital city of the province.Mar 4, 2020 http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-03/04/c_138843056.htm this doesn't tell how many ECMO machines ...


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