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There are two general categories of tests typically used for identifying viral infections: those based on viral genetic material and those based on host immune response. The CDC page on MERS-CoV testing (also a coronavirus, just not the one that causes COVID-19) is an informative resource to start with (bold added and reformatted by me): Molecular tests are ...


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According to UpToDate: At levels of therapeutic anticoagulation, VKAs (vitamin K antagonists) typically cause only mild prolongation (or do not prolong) the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and they do not prolong the anti-factor Xa activity level, a test typically used to measure the effect of heparin or direct oral factor Xa inhibitors I ...


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We have a more plausible reason for the reappearance in 1977 of H1N1. The thesis is that a live attenuated version of H1N1 (LAIV) was used by Chinese scientists who innoculated several 1000s military recruits. It likely was not attenuated correctly and reverted to a more virulent form in-vivo leading to the epidemic. Between 1962 and 1973, almost 40,000 ...


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According to a 1992 review the conclusion of release from a freezer is one obtained by elimination of alternatives: Where was this virus for 27 years? The possible explanations include preservation in a frozen state, preservation in an animal reservoir, or retention in an integrated, as yet undetected form in the genetic material of a human or ...


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