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13

The Chromosomes are not the main Factor in this. The immune system (and antibodies) is, this is a bit different. For example females have a higher HLA antigens and therefore rely on more immunsuppressive therapy. This Therapy is the thing that makes a transplantation possible, nearly all Organs are incompatible to the body, that means that you always have ...


6

@NilsPawlik has addressed the issue of a donor/recipient gender mismatch (it's not the most important factor, but it is something to consider). I thought I'd clarify the point about donor/recipient compatibility. What makes an organ compatible? There are a number different things that make a donor organ work more or less well for a recipient, but each ...


5

Caffeine increased plasma renin activity by 57 per cent, plasma norepinephrine by 75 per cent and plasma epinephrine by 207 per cent. Urinary normetanephrine and metanephrine were increased 52 per cent and 100 per cent respectively. Mean blood pressure rose 14/10 mm Hg one hour after caffeine ingestion. There was a slight fall and then a rise in heart rate. ...


5

If you see a low vitamin D level in conjunction with a raised PTH level, then I think you need to think secondary hyperparathyroidism (HiPTH). But since vast numbers of most western populations have lowish vitamin D levels seen even in my own clinic [3] where sun shine levels are high then it may be just co-incidental. HiPTH disease should not lower the ...


5

Background reading Even though your fluid intake can be highly variable, the total volume of fluid in your body normally remains stable. Homeostasis of body fluid volume depends in large part on the ability of the kidneys to regulate the rate of water loss in urine. Normally functioning kidneys produce a large volume of dilute urine when fluid intake is ...


5

Yes. what you are describing sounds like microscopic hematuria (1). Sometimes red blood cells(RBC) are not numerous enough to be visible in urine. Yet, when tested, RBCs are detected. (1) http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp012694


4

Yes, E. coli is definitely contagious through direct contact. In fact your girlfriend's pyelonephritis could have come from you after sexual intercourse. The general mechanism for this would be that you had the pathogenic E. coli on your penis, and then it traveled up her urethra to the kidney. This is why there is a recommendation for women to urinate ...


4

Not allowed to comment, so just a partial answer from my part: Salmonella bacteria are commonly found in the excrements of birds and egg shells are usually contaminated with them, and even let them through to some extent. Therefore it is very important to boil the shell in advance. This should kill more than 99% of the Samonella bacteria found on the shell: ...


2

Having kidney stones alone entails a recommendation for low-sodium diet: Reduce sodium: A high-sodium diet can trigger kidney stones because it increases the amount of calcium in your urine. So a low-sodium diet is recommended for the stone prone. Current guidelines suggest limiting total daily sodium intake to 2,300 mg. If sodium has contributed to ...


2

Naproxen has a half-life of between twelve and seventeen hours.1 Constant steady-state serum levels of Naproxen are produced after four to five days..1 It stands to reason that the lower the dose the lower the renal and hepatic load and vice versa; the higher dosage requires the kidneys and liver to remove more of the drug. @D Bagnall is correct, however, ...


2

Can it be falsely elevated? Yes: according to this study, creatine in the bloodstream peaks between 1 and 3 hours after consumption, depending on the form in which it is consumed. Is it possible that taking creatine harms the kidneys? Maybe. There have been reports of kidney damage as a result of taking creatine, but small-scale controlled trials of ...


2

"for someone else, of course" Of course not. You haven't read or understood the rules. The point is that you donate a kidney and then the intended recipient gets a voucher to redeem your kidney in the future. The vouchers are not transferrable and only exist to enable someone to donate a kidney for someone else at a time that suits them but not have the ...


2

"Hard on the liver or kidneys" means that the medication is making this organ work harder, damaging it or so potent that the medication is harder to rid from the body. Thinking about the liver: It helps clean your blood by getting rid of harmful chemicals that your body makes Liver Injury Caused by Drugs The pathophysiology of DILI varies ...


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If you have kidney stones or you are at increased risk of developing them, ask a doctor if your urine is super- or under-saturated with any substance, such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid, cystine or citrate; this is a crucial info that can tell if any diet can help. Explanation at-a-glance: Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Kidney Stones by NIDDK. Evidence ...


2

In the paper it says Survival Overall survival at day 180, as shown in Figure 3, was 42.9% (n = 24/56) vs 37.5% (n = 21/56) for terlipressin and placebo, respectively (P = .839). That is a small 5% (n = 3/56) difference in survival rates. Transplant-free survival up to day 180 also was similar in both groups. For patients who did not undergo ...


2

drugs.com is a great resource. Go to the a Pro Edition header. Once you pull up the medication, scroll down until you find the Pharmacology Category. Once here, look for Metabolism and Elimination. This is where you will find your answer. Wikipedia is also a great place for quick hitter info. Search for the same sections in those articles and you should get ...


2

In short, glucose in urine is useful but not completely reliable test for diabetes mellitus, because: It is possible to have diabetes mellitus without glucose in the urine. Rarely, glucose in urine can be due to conditions other than diabetes mellitus, and some drugs and other substances can make the test false positive or negative. Renal threshold for ...


1

Healthy kidneys practically completely excrete creatinine, which means it is not reabsorbed in the kidneys. In kidney damage, less blood is filtered by the kidneys (decreased glomerular filtration), which means less creatinine is excreted, so it accumulates in the blood. So, creatinine excretion is not "impaired" but slowed down because of decreased blood ...


1

A lot of creatinine clearance calculations exist, and a lot depends on the patient (ethnic origin, sex, age, height, weight), so any discrepancies can be considered normal. The point of multiple calculations led me to the Wikipedia article on creatinine, and to the section on serum creatinine, which admits that the two tests produce incompatible results, ...


1

Source: Bel Marra Health Proteinuria: This is a condition in which protein is released in the urine in high amounts. Protein is normally released in the urine but in small amounts. When these levels become high, the urine can appear foamy. This can be a sign of an impending kidney problem as the kidneys are not filtering urine properly and thus ...


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