9

The problem here is the over-simplified (and inaccurate) idea that Thiomersal = mercury, it's not, rather it is a compound (chemical formula: C9H9HgNaO2S) that has mercury atoms in it's molecules, the mercury vapors (Hg) are a different thing, chemically speaking. This means that mercury and Thiomersal will behave very differently in chemical terms, ...


9

It's so that the correct dosage of medication to be administered can be drawn in the syringe and to get rid of any air bubbles incidentally drawn. The syringe has milliliter (and fractions thereof) markers on the barrel. In order to get the right volume of medication from the vial/ampule, one has to get rid of any air bubbles incidentally drawn in. By ...


5

One study published in 1996 in the Clinical Journal of Sport Medicince said that there are insufficient published data to determine the comparative risks and benefits of corticosteroid injections. Most side effects are temporary, but skin atrophy and depigmentation can be permanent. In a further study published in 2002 in Foot and Ankle Clinics we read: ...


5

Fainting due to vaccination occurs only occasionally, your immune system usually takes longer to react to viruses or bacteria (this is the incubation time of an illness). 1 hour is a very unusual incubation time, furthermore the virus you get injected is not active anymore. It is therefore much more likely that a combination of anxiety and pain caused your ...


5

This is taken from a paper on Science Direct. The intramuscular route is used where effects are desired over a longer period of time than can be expected after intravenous injection, for drugs that are too irritant to be given subcutaneously, or for oily solutions, which cannot be given intravenously. Drugs in aqueous solution are often absorbed ...


5

Glucose and insulin could co-exist in the same container without reacting. Intravenous insulin has been used to treat hyperglycemia. There is a risk of severe hypoglycemia and even death after intravenous insulin (Diabetes Spectrum), which makes it inappropriate for use outside hospitals. What naturally happens during stressful physical work? Stress ...


4

Intradeltoid is one of the routes of intramuscular administration, where the injection needle is administered into the deltoid muscle. The deltoid is a triangular-shaped muscle forming the rounded contour of the shoulder, with three points of origination, the lateral third of the clavicle, the acromion, and the posterior border of the spine of the scapula. ...


4

The intramuscular injection has rather erratic pathways of a drug absorprtion. Moreover the drug absorptions rate depends on a drug type and a target organ. However for a purpose of illustration of the point raised by OP a simple pharmacokinetic model (y-axis - concetration, x-axis - time in hours) could be considered: You can see that the amount of ...


4

The Ludwig von Mises Institute (Economy Institute) has recently written an article about the lack of EpiPen Competitiors. It provides a good summary: EpiPen is sold by Mylan, and the price for a pack of two has increased from about $100 in 2007 to over $600 as of May 2016. (...) With the FDA, patents, and cozy insurance relationships, Mylan has been ...


4

Minim (unit): Part of the Apothecary system. It is rarely used anymore(some countries and areas still use the apothecary system) and is a alternative to the drop(which was formerly the smallest unit of the apothecary system). The minim (abbreviated min, ♏ or Mx, a symbol for minim in the apothecaries' system.svg) is a unit of volume in both the imperial ...


3

Triceba is actually Tresiba. It is a very long-acting basal insulin, that you take once a day. It is probably the best basal insulin today for people who do not have fast-changing basal needs like athletes: very insensitive to when you are taking it. Toujeo is a 3x concentrated version of insulin glargine -- i.e. 3x Lantus. It acts roughly like Lantus, but ...


3

It is one of several brands of rabies vaccine available in India. A list can be found here. It wouldn't be appropriate for anyone allergic to eggs since it is cultured in eggs. Otherwise, it should be perfectly fine and is on the lower end of the cost scale. Probably only a pharmaceuticals distributor in India could say whether it's the "preferred" brand, ...


3

Yes there is. In the USA, the certification is called a Medical Assistant. It is a certification that is unlicensed, thus they must work under supervision of a licensed provider (who CAN inject legally) such as LVN RN BSN APRN PA MD/DO... Phlebotamy (drawing blood) is different than administering injections, as you are not putting a substance in the ...


3

BOTOX is a prescription medicine that is injected into muscles and used to prevent (not treat) headaches in adults with chronic migraine who have 15 or more days each month with headache lasting 4 or more hours each day. It can prevent the next attack from occurring, but it isn't approved for treating an attack that someone is going through acutely, right ...


3

I'll start off by highlighting a couple of more general studies: Cole & Schumacher (2005): A general study of corticosteroids, this found that some corticosteroids may be free of side effects (specifically, intraarticular corticosteroids) for a series of short-term injections for a short amount of time (one injection every three months for two years). ...


3

Effects of cortisone ie. glucocorticoids (GCs) are very variable. One effect of GC is the inhibition of collagen formation. Collagen is the main ingredient of tendons. Collagen units form the backbone for tendons and makes them as strong as they are. As every tissue in human reproduces all the time so do tendons by forming new collagen as the old molecules ...


3

The distribution of valves in the veins can vary greatly. FOREARM VEINS Relationship of Common Vascular Anatomy to Cannulated Catheters (Hindawi, 2017): Veins of the antecubital fossa [anterior side of the elbow] were much less likely to have valves, whereas veins of the hand and forearm were nearly equal in the frequency of valves identified. In ...


1

If an injection seems especially painful or if blood or clear fluid is seen after withdrawing the needle, the patient should apply pressure for 5–8 s without rubbing. Blood glucose monitoring should be done more frequently on a day when this occurs. If the patient suspects that a significant portion of the insulin dose was not administered, blood glucose ...


1

Yes, there are many studies, too numerous to list. I'm unsure of what is meant by "long term use", since the drug is relatively new. For ethical reasons, it is required that every author state if there is a potential conflict of interest (e.g. the study was funded by the manufacturer.) Just look at the beginning or the end of the paper, where it lists if ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible